Gene Variant Detail

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Gene BRAF
Variant mutant
Impact List unknown
Protein Effect unknown
Gene Variant Descriptions BRAF mutant indicates an unspecified mutation in the BRAF gene.
Associated Drug Resistance

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No Variant Reference Transcript is Available.
No transcript is Available.

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Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF mutant colon cancer predicted - sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) resulted in some reduced cell growth in colon cancer cells harboring a BRAF mutation in culture (PMID: 27655129). 27655129
BRAF mutant splenic marginal zone lymphoma not applicable N/A Guideline Diagnostic BRAF mutations aid in the diagnosis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive S63845 + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination of S63845 and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in potent cytotoxic effects in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells in culture compared to the cytostatic effect of Mekinist (trametinib) alone (PMID: 27760111). 27760111
BRAF mutant thyroid gland cancer sensitive Belvarafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Belvarafenib (HM95573) inhibited growth of BRAF mutant thyroid cancer cells in culture (Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 2607). detail...
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer sensitive AZ628 + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Koselugo (selumetinib) and AZ628 synergistically inhibited Mapk signaling and cell proliferation in BRAF mutant colorectal cancer cell lines in culture (PMID: 26351322). 26351322
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive MLN2480 Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, MLN2480 resulted in a median progression free survival of 4.6 months and a partial response in 50% (8/16) of melanoma patients harboring a BRAF mutation (Ann Oncol 2017, Vol 28, Suppl 5, Abstract # 410P; NCT01425008). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive MLN2480 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, MLN2480 demonstrated efficacy in BRAF mutant xenograft models of melanoma and colorectal cancer (J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr e13529)). detail...
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit CC-90003 Phase I Actionable In a Phase Ia trial, CC-90003 treatment did not result in any objective responses and demonstrated toxicity in advanced solid tumor patients harboring KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations (AJ Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl; abstr 2577)). detail...
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 inhibited Erk signaling and induced tumor regression in patient-derived xenograft models of BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer (Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 5168). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + Buparlisib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Binimetinib (MEK162) and Buparlisib (BKM120) resulted in improved cell growth inhibition compared to either agent alone in a metastatic melanoma cell line harboring a BRAF mutation in culture (PMID: 27307593). 27307593
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + LSN3074753 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, LSN3074753 and Erbitux (cetuximab) synergistically inhibited tumor growth in patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF mutations, resulted in a disease control rate of 41.7% (5/12) (PMID: 28611205). 28611205
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Encorafenib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, Encorafenib (LGX818) treatment resulted in an overall response rate (ORR) of 60% (15/25) and a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 12.4 months in BRAF inhibitor-naïve melanoma patients harboring BRAF mutations, and an ORR of 22% (6/29) and mPFS of 1.9 months in BRAF inhibitor-pretreated patients (PMID: 28611198; NCT01436656). 28611198
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer sensitive MLN2480 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, MLN2480 demonstrated efficacy in BRAF mutant xenograft models of melanoma and colorectal cancer (J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr e13529)). detail...
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer resistant Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a majority of human colorectal cancer cell lines (4/7) harboring mutant BRAF were insensitive to Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive E6201 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, E6201 inhibited proliferation of several melanoma cell lines in culture and hypersensitivity was associated with BRAF mutations (PMID: 23039341). 23039341
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Obatoclax Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, obatoclax decreased proliferation in human tumor cell lines with BRAF mutation in culture (PMID: 22460902). 22460902
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer predicted - resistant SYM004 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of colorectal cancer harboring KRAS, NRAS or BRAF mutations demonstrated poor response to SYM004 treatment compared to wild-type models (PMID: 29423521). 29423521
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Encorafenib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib/II trial, the combination therapy of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) in colorectal cancer patients harboring a BRAF mutation resulted in an overall response rate of 19% (5/26), including 1 patient with a complete response and 4 patients with a partial response, and led to a median progression free survival of 3.7 months and response duration of 46 weeks (PMID: 28363909). 28363909
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Buparlisib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Buparlisib (BKM120) treatment in human melanoma cell line xenograft models with brain metastases and harboring a BRAF mutation resulted in inhibition of brain tumor growth (PMID: 27307593). 27307593
BRAF mutant cervix carcinoma predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 inhibited Erk signaling and induced tumor regression in patient-derived xenograft models of BRAF-mutant cervical carcinoma (Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 5168). detail...
BRAF mutant pancreatic adenocarcinoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells harboring mutant BRAF in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF mutant lung non-small cell carcinoma predicted - sensitive unspecified PD-1 antibody Clinical Study - Cohort Actionable In a clinical study, mutant BRAF correlated with prolonged duration on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy compared to wild-type BRAF in non-small cell lung cancer patients (Ann Oncol 2017, Vol 28, Suppl 5, Abstract #1138PD). detail...
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 resulted in tumor regression in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models harboring either a BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, or KRAS mutation (EJC Dec 2016, 69:1; S126). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive S63845 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination of S63845 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in potent cytotoxic effects in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells in culture compared to the cytostatic effect of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) alone (PMID: 27760111). 27760111
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Tubastatin A Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tubastatin A inhibited proliferation of BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines in culture (PMID: 25957812). 25957812
BRAF mutant melanoma predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 inhibited Erk signaling and induced tumor regression in patient-derived xenograft models of BRAF-mutant melanoma (Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 5168). detail...
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive LSN3074753 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, LSN3074753 resulted in a disease control rate of 8.3% (1/12) in BRAF mutant patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal cancer (PMID: 28611205). 28611205
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer sensitive Belvarafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Belvarafenib (HM95573) inhibited growth of BRAF mutant colorectal cancer cell lines in culture and in cell line xenograft models (Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 2607). detail...
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive MLN2480 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, MLN2480 inhibited downstream signaling and proliferation of several BRAF mutant solid tumor cell lines in culture (EJC Supp, Nov 2010, Vol 8(7), p40-41). detail...
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor decreased response XL147 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, tumor cell lines harboring BRAF mutations demonstrated limited sensitivity to XL147 treatment in culture (PMID: 25637314). 25637314
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer decreased response PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BRAF mutant colorectal cancer cell lines demonstrated reduced sensitivity to PLX4720 in culture (PMID: 26351322). 26351322
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive SY-5609 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, SY-5609 treatment resulted in 90% or more tumor growth inhibition or tumor regression in 50% (5/10) of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF mutations (J Clin Oncol 38: 2020 (suppl; abstr 3585)). detail...
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Dabrafenib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I clinical trial, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) demonstrated safety and efficacy in patients with BRAF V600E positive solid tumors (PMID: 22608338). 22608338
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Buparlisib + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Buparlisib (BKM120) and Encorafenib (LGX818) resulted in improved cell growth inhibition compared to either agent alone in a metastatic melanoma cell line harboring a BRAF mutation in culture (PMID: 27307593). 27307593
BRAF mutant lung adenocarcinoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring mutant BRAF in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive LXH 254 Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a Phase I trial, LXH 254 treatment resulted in partial response in 2.6% (2/75) and stable disease in 33% (25/75) of patients with advanced solid tumors harboring MAPK pathway alterations, one of the patient achieved partial response harbored a BRAF mutation (J Clin Oncol 36, no. 15_suppl (May 20 2018) 2586-2586; NCT02607813). detail...
BRAF mutant lymphoma no benefit Trametinib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial (NCI-MATCH), Mekinist (trametinib) treatment did not demonstrate clinical activity in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma harboring BRAF fusion (n=1) or non-V600 mutations (n=31), resulted in a partial response in 3% (1/32) and stable disease in 31% (10/32) of the patients, with a median progression-free survival of 1.8 months, and a median overall survival of 5.7 months (PMID: 31924734; NCT02465060). 31924734
BRAF mutant multiple myeloma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of human multiple myeloma cells harboring mutant BRAF in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF mutant melanoma predicted - sensitive ST-162 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, ST-162 treatment resulted in tumor regression in BRAF mutant-melanoma cell line xenograft models (PMID: 28775144). 28775144
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer no benefit Regorafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial (PREVIUM), Stivarga (regorafenib) treatment resulted in 0% (0/15) 6-month progression free survival (PFS), a 2.2-month median PFS, and a median overall survival of 3.3 months in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with KRAS (n=9), NRAS (n=3) or BRAF (n=2) mutations who failed first line therapy; however, the trial was terminated early due to poor accrual (PMID: 30120161; NCT02175654). 30120161
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive PET-16 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PET-16 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) synergistically inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines in culture, resulted in enhanced tumor growth inhibition in cell ine xenograft models (PMID: 26984758). 26984758
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive Dabrafenib + Panitumumab + Trametinib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase I/II trial, treatment with the triple combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), Mekinist (trametinib), and Vectibix (panitumumab) resulted in an objective response rate (ORR) of 21% and median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 4.2 mo, compared with 0% ORR and mPFS of 2.6 mo with Mekinist (trametinib) plus Vectibix (panitumumab), and 10% ORR and mPFS of 3.5 mo with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) plus Vectibix (panitumumab) in patients with BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer (PMID: 27770002; NCT01750918). 27770002
BRAF mutant melanoma predicted - sensitive BI-847325 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with BI-847325 resulted in decreased expression of Mcl-1 and Mek, and inhibited growth of BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, and inhibited tumor growth melanoma cell line xenograft models harboring BRAF mutations, including models with BRAF inhibitor resistance (PMID: 25873592). 25873592
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Selumetinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a Phase II trial, 5 out of 6 patients with advanced melanoma exhibiting a response to Koselugo (selumetinib) had BRAF-mutant tumors (PMID: 22048237). 22048237
BRAF mutant lung non-small cell carcinoma predicted - sensitive unspecified PD-L1 antibody Clinical Study - Cohort Actionable In a clinical study, mutant BRAF correlated with prolonged duration on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy compared to wild-type BRAF in non-small cell lung cancer patients (Ann Oncol 2017, Vol 28, Suppl 5, Abstract #1138PD). detail...
BRAF mutant lung non-small cell carcinoma predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 inhibited Erk signaling and induced tumor regression in patient-derived xenograft models of BRAF-mutant non-small cell lung cancer harboring (Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 5168). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma predicted - sensitive Belvarafenib Phase I Actionable In Phase I trials, Belvarafenib (HM95573) treatment resulted in partial response in a patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma in a dose escalation study, and partial response in 33% (2/6) of BRAF-mutant melanoma patients in a dose expansion study (J Clin Oncol 37, 2019 (suppl; abstr 3000); NCT02405065, NCT03118817). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma predicted - sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (ulixertinib) resulted in a best response of stable disease in six melanoma patients and a partial response in three melanoma patients all harboring a BRAF mutation (PMID: 29247021). 29247021
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive Binimetinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, Binimetinib (MEK162) treatment resulted in an estimated progression free survival of 1.4 months and overall survival of 7.1 months in colorectal cancer patients harboring BRAF mutations (PMID: 28152546). 28152546
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + Voruciclib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, Voruciclib (P1446A-05) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) combination therapy demonstrated safety and preliminary efficacy, resulted in complete response in 33% (1/3) and partial response in 67% (2/3) of BRAFi-naïve melanoma patients harboring BRAF mutations (J Clin Oncol 33, 2015 (suppl; abstr 9076)). detail...
BRAF mutant lung non-small cell carcinoma unknown unspecified immune checkpoint inhibitor Clinical Study - Cohort Actionable In a retrospective clinical study, patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring rare targetable drivers (RTD) (BRAF, ERBB2/3, RET, MET, ROS1, NTRK) who received immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) achieved longer median overall survival (mOS) (32 vs 13 mo, p=0.01) compared to those who did not receive ICI, mOS was not reached in patients harboring BRAF non-V600E (n=5) mutations, although RTD type was not associated with OS in a univariate analysis (PMID: 30268448). 30268448
BRAF mutant lung non-small cell carcinoma unknown unspecified immune checkpoint inhibitor Clinical Study Actionable In a retrospective clinical study, no significant difference in overall survival (19.0 vs 18.4 months) was found in patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring BRAF V600E (n=14), amplification (n=5), or non-V600E mutations (n=12) who received immunotherapy compared to those who never received immunotherapy (PMID: 31367539). 31367539
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Trametinib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial (NCI-MATCH), Mekinist (trametinib) treatment did not demonstrate clinical activity in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma harboring BRAF fusion (n=1) or non-V600 mutations (n=31), resulted in a partial response in 3% (1/32) and stable disease in 31% (10/32) of the patients, with a median progression-free survival of 1.8 months, and a median overall survival of 5.7 months (PMID: 31924734; NCT02465060). 31924734
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive PF-00477736 + PF3644022 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 and MK2 inhibitor PF3644022 synergistically inhibited growth of various cancer cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture and in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 26140595). 26140595
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive Palbociclib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring a BRAF mutation demonstrated greater sensitivity to the combination treatment of Mekinist (trametinib) and Ibrance (palbociclib) in culture when compared to either agent alone (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 blocked survival and growth of vemurafenib/PLX4720-resistant melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E splice variants in culture (PMID: 24422853). 24422853
BRAF mutant pancreatic cancer predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 inhibited Erk signaling and induced tumor regression in patient-derived xenograft models of BRAF-mutant pancreatic cancer (Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 5168). detail...
BRAF mutant thyroid gland cancer predicted - sensitive Selumetinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I study, Koselugo (selumetinib) demonstrated an increase in iodine uptake and retention in a subgroup of patients with thyroid cancer that was refractory to radioiodine, including patients with BRAF and NRAS mutations (PMID: 23406027). 23406027
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit LY3009120 Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a Phase I trial, LY3009120 did not achieve expected pharmacodynamic effects, resulted in stable disease as best overall response in 5 of 12 patients with advanced or metastatic cancer harboring BRAF mutations (PMID: 31645440; NCT02014116). 31645440
BRAF mutant stomach carcinoma predicted - sensitive KO-947 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, KO-947 inhibited Erk signaling and induced tumor regression in patient-derived xenograft models of BRAF-mutant gastric carcinoma (Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 5168). detail...
BRAF mutant melanoma predicted - sensitive UNC2025 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination therapy of UNC2025 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in greater inhibition of colony formation and apoptotic induction in melanoma cells harboring a BRAF mutation in culture and led to a higher degree of tumor growth inhibition in a patient derived xenograft (PDX) model of melanoma with a BRAF mutation when compared to either therapy alone (PMID: 30482852). 30482852
BRAF mutant melanoma sensitive E6201 + LY294002 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, E6201 and LY294002 synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture, regardless of PTEN mutation status (PMID: 23039341). 23039341
BRAF mutant lung non-small cell carcinoma predicted - sensitive Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) resulted in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis and enhanced ERK inhibition compared to either agent alone in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines harboring non-BRAF V600 mutations in culture (PMID: 28947956). 28947956
BRAF mutant Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive RAF709 Phase I Actionable In a preclinical study, cancer cell lines harboring BRAF mutations demonstrated increased sensitivity to RAF709 compared to BRAF wild-type cells in culture (PMID: 29343524). 29343524
BRAF mutant colorectal cancer sensitive Alpelisib + Cetuximab + Encorafenib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib/II trial, the triple combination therapy of Encorafenib (LGX818), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Alpelisib (BYL719) resulted in an overall response rate of 18% (5/28), including 5 patients with a partial response, and led to a median progression free survival of 4.2 months and response duration of 12 weeks (PMID: 28363909). detail... 28363909
BRAF mutant colon cancer predicted - sensitive PF-00477736 + PF3644022 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 and MK2 inhibitor PF3644022 synergistically inhibited tumor growth in cell line xenograft models of BRAF mutant colon cancer (PMID: 26140595). 26140595
BRAF mut TP53 wild-type melanoma sensitive CGM097 + Encorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of CGM097 and Encorafenib (LGX818) synergized to inhibit cell growth of a human melanoma cell line harboring mutant BRAF and wild-type TP53 in culture, and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models (Cancer Res October 1, 2014 74; 5466). detail...
BRAF mut TP53 wild-type colorectal cancer sensitive CGM097 + Dabrafenib + Navitoclax + PF-04217903 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Navitoclax (ABT-263), CGM097, Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and PF04217903 resulted in the greatest synergistic effect and inhibition of cell growth in colorectal cancer cells harboring a BRAF mutation and wild-type TP53 in culture compared to the double or triple combinations of the therapies (PMID: 27659046). 27659046
BRAF mut TP53 wild-type melanoma sensitive KRT-232 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, KRT-232 (AMG 232) inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line with wild-type TP53, that also harbored a BRAF mutation, in culture and inhibited tumor growth in a TP53 wild-type BRAF-mutant melanoma cell line xenograft model (PMID: 25567130). 25567130
BRAF mut TP53 wild-type Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Pimasertib + SAR405838 Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, SAR405838 and Pimasertib (MSC1936369B) combination therapy demonstrated safety and preliminary efficacy, resulted in partial response in 4% (1/24) and stable disease in 63% (15/24) of patients with TP53 wild-type advanced solid tumors harboring RAS/RAF mutations (KRAS, n=24; BRAF, n=1; NRAS, n=1) (PMID: 30585255; NCT01985191). 30585255
BRAF mut NRAS mut melanoma sensitive Lenvatinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I clinical trial, Lenvima (lenvatinib) treatment resulted in stable disease in 50% (1/2) of melanoma patients harboring both BRAF and NRAS mutations (PMID: 26169970). 26169970
BRAF mut NRAS mut melanoma predicted - sensitive BI-847325 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with BI-847325 inhibited growth of a BRAF-mutant melanoma cell line with BRAF-inhibitor resistance due to an NRAS mutation in culture (PMID: 25873592). 25873592
BRAF mut NRAS wild-type melanoma sensitive Lenvatinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I clinical trial, Lenvima (lenvatinib) treatment resulted in stable disease in 100% (5/5) of melanoma patients harboring BRAF mutations and wild-type NRAS (PMID: 26169970). 26169970
BRAF mut PTEN loss melanoma sensitive SAR260301 + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, SAR260301 and Selumetinib (AZD6244) synergistically inhibited proliferation of PTEN deficient melanoma cells harboring BRAF mutations in culture and suppressed tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 27196754). 27196754
BRAF mut PTEN loss melanoma sensitive SAR260301 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, SAR260301 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) synergistically inhibited proliferation of PTEN deficient melanoma cells harboring BRAF mutations in culture and suppressed tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 27196754). 27196754
BRAF mut PTEN loss melanoma no benefit Pembrolizumab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Keytruda (pembrolizumab) resulted in no benefit in a melanoma mouse model co-harboring a BRAF mutation and PTEN loss (PMID: 26645196). 26645196
BRAF mut PTEN loss melanoma sensitive GSK2636771 + Pembrolizumab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma mouse model harboring a BRAF mutation and PTEN loss was sensitive to the combination of GSK2636771 and Keytruda (pembrolizumab), demonstrating greater tumor growth inhibition and improved survival when compared to either therapy alone (PMID: 26645196). 26645196
BRAF mut PTEN loss melanoma sensitive SAR260301 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, SAR260301 inhibited proliferation of PTEN deficient melanoma cells harboring BRAF mutations in culture and suppressed tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 27196754). 27196754
BRAF mut PTEN loss melanoma no benefit GSK2636771 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 resulted in no benefit in a melanoma mouse model co-harboring a BRAF mutation and PTEN loss (PMID: 26645196). 26645196
BRAF mut PTEN mut melanoma predicted - sensitive ST-162 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, ST-162 resulted in tumor regression in a melanoma cell line xenograft model co-harboring mutations in BRAF and PTEN (PMID: 28775144). 28775144
BRAF mut PTEN mut melanoma decreased response E6201 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, E6201 resulted in a cytostatic response in melanoma cell lines harboring both BRAF and PTEN mutations in culture and only inhibited tumor growth at very high doses in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 23039341). 23039341
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma no benefit AZD6482 + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and NVP-AEW541 combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma no benefit Binimetinib + GSK2636771 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 and Binimetinib (MEK162) combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma sensitive E6201 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, E6201 resulted in a cytocidal response in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture and inhibited tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 23039341). 23039341
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma no benefit AZD6482 + Binimetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and Binimetinib (MEK162) combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma no benefit Encorafenib + GSK2636771 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma no benefit AZD6482 + Encorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type melanoma no benefit GSK2636771 + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 and NVP-AEW541 combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in PTEN wild-type melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 + Binimetinib + Encorafenib + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consists of AZD6482, Binimetinib (MEK162), Encorafenib (LGX818), and NVP-AEW541 efficiently induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + GSK2636771 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 and Binimetinib (MEK162) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + AZD6482 + Binimetinib + Encorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consisting of AZD6482, Binimetinib (MEK162), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) efficiently induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + AZD6482 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and Alpelisib (BYL719) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + AZD6482 + Binimetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consisting of AZD6482, Binimetinib (MEK162), and Alpelisib (BYL719) efficiently induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 + Binimetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and Binimetinib (MEK162) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + Pictilisib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Pictilisib (GDC-0941) and Binimetinib (MEK162) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + Pictilisib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Pictilisib (GDC-0941) and Encorafenib (LGX818) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive TGX-221 Preclinical Actionable In a preclincal study, TGX-221 inhibited Akt activation and proliferation in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 + Encorafenib + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consists of AZD6482, Encorafenib (LGX818), and NVP-AEW541 efficiently induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma no benefit Alpelisib + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Alpelisib (BYL719) and NVP-AEW541 combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive GSK2636771 + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 and NVP-AEW541 synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + GSK2636771 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, GSK2636771 and Encorafenib (LGX818) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma decreased response Alpelisib Preclinical Actionable In a preclincal study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations were less sensitive to Alpelisib (BYL719)-induced growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma no benefit Alpelisib + Encorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Alpelisib (BYL719) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Pictilisib Preclinical Actionable In a preclincal study, Pictilisib (GDC-0941) inhibited Akt activation and proliferation in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 Preclinical Actionable In a preclincal study, AZD6482 inhibited Akt activation and proliferation in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive NVP-AEW541 + Pictilisib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Pictilisib (GDC-0941) and NVP-AEW541 synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma no benefit Alpelisib + Binimetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Alpelisib (BYL719) and Binimetinib (MEK162) combination treatment did not enhance growth inhibition compared to single agent in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + GSK2636771 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of GSK2636771 and Alpelisib (BYL719) synergized to inhibit proliferation of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture, and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of one cell line harboring these mutations (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 + Binimetinib + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consists of AZD6482, Binimetinib (MEK162), and NVP-AEW541 efficiently induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + AZD6482 + Encorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consisting of AZD6482, Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) efficiently induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + Encorafenib + GSK2636771 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of GSK2636771, Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) efficiently inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of a human melanoma cell line harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + unspecified IGF-1R antibody Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consists of Encorafenib (LGX818) and a figitumumab-like antibody inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 + Encorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and Encorafenib (LGX818) synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + GSK2636771 + unspecified IGF-1R antibody Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consisting of GSK2636771, Encorafenib (LGX818), and a figitumumab-like antibody inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive AZD6482 + NVP-AEW541 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, AZD6482 and NVP-AEW541 synergistically inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations in culture (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut melanoma sensitive GSK2636771 + unspecified IGF-1R antibody Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, combination treatment consisting of GSK2636771 and a figitumumab-like antibody inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF mutations and PTEN inactivating mutations (PMID: 26577700). 26577700
BRAF mut RB1 loss melanoma decreased response Palbociclib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line with a BRAF mutation and loss of RB1 demonstrated minimal sensitivity when treated with the combination of Ibrance (palbociclib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF mut RB1 loss melanoma decreased response Palbociclib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring a BRAF mutation and loss of RB1 demonstrated a decreased response to Ibrance (palbociclib) treatment in culture when compared to treatment of melanoma cell lines wild-type for BRAF (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF mut RB1 loss melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring a BRAF mutation and RB1 loss demonstrated reduced sensitivity when treated with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF mut TP53 mut colorectal cancer sensitive Alpelisib + Dabrafenib + Erlotinib + Navitoclax Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Navitoclax (ABT-263), Alpelisib (BYL719), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Tarceva (erlotinib) resulted in the greatest synergistic effect and inhibition of cell growth in colorectal cancer cells harboring a BRAF mutation and TP53 mutation in culture compared to the double or triple combinations of the therapies (PMID: 27659046). 27659046
BRAF mut PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive TAK-733 Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, mutations in BRAF, KRAS, or NRAS were associated with sensitivity to TAK-733 in colorectal cancer cell lines in culture, and patient-derived xenograft models harboring KRAS or BRAF mutations with wild-type PIK3CA demonstrated a trend toward higher tumor growth inhibition following TAK-733 treatment (PMID: 26439693). 26439693
BRAF mut IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma predicted - sensitive Nivolumab Clinical Study - Cohort Actionable In a retrospective analysis, MAPK pathway mutations were significantly enriched in patients with IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma who responded to anti-PD-1 therapy with either Keytruda (pembrolizumab) or Opdivo (nivolumab), compared to those who did not respond (odds ratio=12.8, p=0.019), with 4 MAPK pathway mutations (2 in BRAF, 2 in PTPN11) identified in 13 responders and 1 (BRAF) in 32 non-responders (PMID: 30742119). 30742119
BRAF mut IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma predicted - sensitive Pembrolizumab Clinical Study - Cohort Actionable In a retrospective analysis, MAPK pathway mutations were significantly enriched in patients with IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma who responded to anti-PD-1 therapy with either Keytruda (pembrolizumab) or Opdivo (nivolumab), compared to those who did not respond (odds ratio=12.8, p=0.019), with 4 MAPK pathway mutations (2 in BRAF, 2 in PTPN11) identified in 13 responders and 1 (BRAF) in 32 non-responders (PMID: 30742119). 30742119
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References