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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Okimoto RA, Lin L, Olivas V, Chan E, Markegard E, Rymar A, Neel D, Chen X, Hemmati G, Bollag G, Bivona TG|
|Title||Preclinical efficacy of a RAF inhibitor that evades paradoxical MAPK pathway activation in protein kinase BRAF-mutant lung cancer.|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Date||2016 11 22|
|Abstract Text||Oncogenic activation of protein kinase BRAF drives tumor growth by promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling. Because oncogenic mutations in BRAF occur in ∼2-7% of lung adenocarcinoma (LA), BRAF-mutant LA is the most frequent cause of BRAF-mutant cancer mortality worldwide. Whereas most tumor types harbor predominantly the BRAFV600E-mutant allele, the spectrum of BRAF mutations in LA includes BRAFV600E (∼60% of cases) and non-V600E mutant alleles (∼40% of cases) such as BRAFG469A and BRAFG466V The presence of BRAFV600E in LA has prompted clinical trials testing selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib in BRAFV600E-mutant patients. Despite promising clinical efficacy, both innate and acquired resistance often result from reactivation of MAPK pathway signaling, thus limiting durable responses to the current BRAF inhibitors. Further, the optimal therapeutic strategy to block non-V600E BRAF-mutant LA remains unclear. Here, we report the efficacy of the Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase (RAF) inhibitor, PLX8394, that evades MAPK pathway reactivation in BRAF-mutant LA models. We show that PLX8394 treatment is effective in both BRAFV600E and certain non-V600 LA models, in vitro and in vivo. PLX8394 was effective against treatment-naive BRAF-mutant LAs and those with acquired vemurafenib resistance caused by an alternatively spliced, truncated BRAFV600E that promotes vemurafenib-insensitive MAPK pathway signaling. We further show that acquired PLX8394 resistance occurs via EGFR-mediated RAS-mTOR signaling and is prevented by upfront combination therapy with PLX8394 and either an EGFR or mTOR inhibitor. Our study provides a biological rationale and potential polytherapy strategy to aid the deployment of PLX8394 in lung cancer patients.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|BRAF G466V||lung adenocarcinoma||sensitive||PLX8394||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, PLX8394 decreased growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines harboring BRAF G466V in culture (PMID: 27834212).||27834212|
|BRAF G469A||lung adenocarcinoma||sensitive||PLX8394||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, PLX8394 decreased growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines harboring BRAF G469A in culture, and reduced tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 27834212).||27834212|