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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (17376864)
Authors Gymnopoulos M, Elsliger MA, Vogt PK
Title Rare cancer-specific mutations in PIK3CA show gain of function.
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol 104
Issue 13
Date 2007 Mar 27
URL
Abstract Text Fifteen rare cancer-derived mutants of PIK3CA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit p110alpha of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), were examined for their biological and biochemical properties. Fourteen of these mutants show a gain of function: they induce rapamycin-sensitive oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts, constitutively activate Akt and TOR-mediated signaling, and show enhanced lipid kinase activity. Mapping of these mutants on a partial structural model of p110alpha suggests three groups of mutants, defined by their location in distinct functional domains of the protein. We hypothesize that each of these three groups induces a gain of PI3K function by a different molecular mechanism. Mutants in the C2 domain increase the positive surface charge of this domain and therefore may enhance the recruitment of p110alpha to cellular membranes. Mutants in the helical domain map to a contiguous surface of the protein and may affect the interaction with other protein(s). Mutants in the kinase domain are located near the hinge of the activation loop. They may alter the position and mobility of the activation loop. Arbitrarily introduced mutations that have no detectable phenotype map either to the interior of the protein or are positioned on a surface region that lies opposite to the exposed surfaces containing gain-of-function mutants. Engineered mutants that exchange acidic or neutral residues for basic residues on the critical surfaces show a gain of function.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
PIK3CA C420R missense gain of function PIK3CA C420R lies within the C2 PI3K-type domain of the Pik3ca protein (PMID: 17376864). C420R confers a gain of function on Pik3ca, as indicated by constitutive phosphorylation of downstream targets Akt and S6, increased cell proliferation and migration, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785, PMID: 34779417).
PIK3CA E116K missense no effect PIK3CA E116K does not lie within any known functional domains of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). E116K phosphorylates Akt to similar level of wild-type Pik3ca and is not transforming in culture (PMID: 17376864).
PIK3CA E545A missense gain of function PIK3CA E545A is a hotspot mutation that lies within the PIK helical domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). E545A confers a gain of function on the Pik3ca protein as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of Akt and transformation in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA E545G missense gain of function PIK3CA E545G is a hotspot mutation that lies within the PIK helical domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). E545G confers a gain of function on the Pik3ca protein as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of Akt and transformation in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA H1047Y missense gain of function PIK3CA H1047Y is a hotspot mutation that lies within the PI3K/PI4K domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). H1047Y confers a gain of function on the Pik3ca protein as indicated by increased phosphorylation of Akt, activation of downstream signaling, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA K111N missense gain of function PIK3CA K111N lies within the region linking the PI3K-ABD and PI3K-RBD domains of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). K111N results in increased phosphorylation of Akt, activation of downstream signaling, increased cell proliferation and migration, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785, PMID: 34779417).
PIK3CA M1043I missense gain of function PIK3CA M1043I lies within the PI3K/PI4K domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). M1043I confers a gain of function on the Pik3ca protein as indicated by in increased phosphorylation of Akt, activation of downstream signaling, and transformation in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA M1043V missense gain of function PIK3CA M1043V lies within the PI3K/PI4K domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). M1043V results in increased phosphorylation of Akt, activation of downstream signaling, increased cell proliferation and migration, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785, PMID: 34779417).
PIK3CA N345K missense gain of function PIK3CA N345K lies within the C2 PI3K-type domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). N345K results in increased phosphorylation of Akt, activation of downstream signaling, increased cell proliferation and migration, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785, PMID: 34779417).
PIK3CA P539R missense gain of function PIK3CA P539R lies within the PIK helical domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). P539R increases the stability of the Pik3ca protein, confers a gain of function, as indicated by constitutive phosphorylation of downstream targets Akt and S6, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 18951408, PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA Q546K missense gain of function PIK3CA Q546K lies within the PIK helical domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org, PMID: 17376864). Q546K confers a gain of function to Pik3ca as indicated by constitutive phosphorylation of downstream targets Akt and S6, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA Q546P missense gain of function PIK3CA Q546P lies within the PIK helical domain of the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). Q546P results in increased phosphorylation of Akt, activation of downstream signaling, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 17376864, PMID: 29533785).
PIK3CA T1025S missense gain of function PIK3CA T1025S lies within the PI3K/PI4K domain in the Pik3ca protein (UniProt.org). T1025S confers a gain of function to the Pik3ca protein as indicated by constitutive activation of downstream signaling and transformation in cultured cells (PMID: 17376864).
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
PIK3CA M1043V Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sirolimus Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Rapamune (sirolimus) inhibited proliferation in cultured cells expressing PIK3CA M1043V (PMID: 17376864). 17376864
PIK3CA C420R Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sirolimus Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, cells expressing PIK3CA C420R were sensitive to Rapamune (sirolimus) in culture (PMID: 17376864). 17376864