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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Xue Y, Martelotto L, Baslan T, Vides A, Solomon M, Mai TT, Chaudhary N, Riely GJ, Li BT, Scott K, Cechhi F, Stierner U, Chadalavada K, de Stanchina E, Schwartz S, Hembrough T, Nanjangud G, Berger MF, Nilsson J, Lowe SW, Reis-Filho JS, Rosen N, Lito P|
|Title||An approach to suppress the evolution of resistance in BRAFV600E-mutant cancer.|
|Abstract Text||The principles that govern the evolution of tumors exposed to targeted therapy are poorly understood. Here we modeled the selection and propagation of an amplification in the BRAF oncogene (BRAFamp) in patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) that were treated with a direct inhibitor of the kinase ERK, either alone or in combination with other ERK signaling inhibitors. Single-cell sequencing and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses mapped the emergence of extra-chromosomal amplification in parallel evolutionary trajectories that arose in the same tumor shortly after treatment. The evolutionary selection of BRAFamp was determined by the fitness threshold, the barrier that subclonal populations need to overcome to regain fitness in the presence of therapy. This differed for inhibitors of ERK signaling, suggesting that sequential monotherapy is ineffective and selects for a progressively higher BRAF copy number. Concurrent targeting of the RAF, MEK and ERK kinases, however, imposed a sufficiently high fitness threshold to prevent the propagation of subclones with high-level BRAFamp. When administered on an intermittent schedule, this treatment inhibited tumor growth in 11/11 PDXs of lung cancer or melanoma without apparent toxicity in mice. Thus, gene amplification can be acquired and expanded through parallel evolution, enabling tumors to adapt while maintaining their intratumoral heterogeneity. Treatments that impose the highest fitness threshold will likely prevent the evolution of resistance-causing alterations and, thus, merit testing in patients.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|BRAF V600E BRAF amp||lung adenocarcinoma||sensitive||Dabrafenib + SCH772984 + Trametinib||Preclinical - Pdx||Actionable||In a preclinical study, combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), SCH772984, and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in durable tumor inhibition in cell line xenograft models of BRAF V600E mutated lung adenocarcinoma cells that acquired resistance to Erk inhibitors through BRAF amplification (PMID: 28714990).||28714990|
|BRAF V600E||melanoma||decreased response||Dabrafenib + SCH772984 + Trametinib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), SCH772984, and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in durable inhibition of Erk signaling and proliferation of melanoma cells overexpressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 28714990).||28714990|
|BRAF V600E BRAF amp||lung adenocarcinoma||decreased response||SCH772984||Preclinical - Patient cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, patient-derived BRAF V600E mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells that acquired resistance to Erk inhibitor through BRAF amplification were less sensitive to SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 28714990).||28714990|