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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Gadhikar MA, Sciuto MR, Alves MV, Pickering CR, Osman AA, Neskey DM, Zhao M, Fitzgerald AL, Myers JN, Frederick MJ|
|Title||Chk1/2 inhibition overcomes the cisplatin resistance of head and neck cancer cells secondary to the loss of functional p53.|
|Journal||Molecular cancer therapeutics|
|Abstract Text||Despite the use of multimodality therapy using cisplatin to treat patients with advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), there is an unacceptably high rate of treatment failure. TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in HNSCC, and the impact of p53 mutation on response to cisplatin treatment is poorly understood. Here, we show unambiguously that wild-type TP53 (wtp53) is associated with sensitivity of HNSCC cells to cisplatin treatment, whereas mutation or loss of TP53 is associated with cisplatin resistance. We also show that senescence is the major cellular response to cisplatin in wtp53 HNSCC cells and that cisplatin resistance in p53-null or -mutant TP53 cells is due to their lack of senescence. Given the dependence on checkpoint kinase (Chk)1/2 kinases to mediate the DNA damage response in p53-deficient cells, there is potential to exploit this to therapeutic advantage through targeted inhibition of the Chk1/2 kinases. Treatment of p53-deficient HNSCC cells with the Chk inhibitor AZD7762 sensitizes them to cisplatin through induction of mitotic cell death. This is the first report showing the ability of a Chk kinase inhibitor to sensitize TP53-deficient HNSCC to cisplatin in a synthetic lethal manner, which has significance given the frequency of TP53 mutations in this disease and because cisplatin has become part of standard therapy for aggressive HNSCC tumors. These preclinical data provide evidence that a personalized approach to the treatment of HNSCC based on Chk inhibition in p53-mutant tumors may be feasible.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|TP53 mutant||head and neck squamous cell carcinoma||sensitive||AZD7762 + Cisplatin||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, the treatment of a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line with mutant TP53 (C176F and A161S) with AZD7762, a pan Chk1/2 inhibitor, sensitizes the cells to Platinol (cisplatin) (PMID: 23839309).||23839309|