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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Yan J, Wu X, Yu J, Yu H, Xu T, Brown KM, Bai X, Dai J, Ma M, Tang H, Si L, Chi Z, Sheng X, Cui C, Kong Y, Guo J|
|Title||Analysis of NRAS gain in 657 patients with melanoma and evaluation of its sensitivity to a MEK inhibitor.|
|Journal||European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)|
|Abstract Text||Neuroblastoma rat-sarcoma (NRAS) mutations have been described in Chinese patients with melanoma. However, the status and the clinical significance of NRAS gain have not been investigated on a large scale.A total of 657 melanoma samples were included in the study. NRAS copy number was examined using the QuantiGene Plex DNA assay. The sensitivities of cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models containing NRAS gain to a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor (binimetinib) were also evaluated.The overall incidence of NRAS gain was 14.0% (92 of 657). Incidence of NRAS gain in acral, mucosal, chronic sun-induced damage (CSD) and non-CSD melanomas was 12.2%, 15.8%, 9.5% and 19.4%, respectively. NRAS gain was mutually exclusive to NRAS mutations (P = 0.036). The median survival time for melanoma patients with NRAS gain was significantly shorter than that for patients with normal NRAS copy number (P = 0.006). For patients containing NRAS gain, the median survival time for higher copy number (>4 copies) was significantly shorter than those with lower copy number (2-4 copies; P = 0.002). The MEK inhibitor (binimetinib) inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells and the tumour growth of PDX models with NRAS gain.NRAS gain is frequent in patients with melanoma and may predict a poor prognosis of melanoma. The melanoma cells and PDX models containing NRAS gain are sensitive to MEK inhibitor (binimetinib), indicating that NRAS gain might be a new therapeutic target for melanoma.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|NRAS over exp||melanoma||predicted - sensitive||Binimetinib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Mektovi (binimetinib) treatment in melanoma cell lines with NRAS overexpression, but without NRAS or BRAF mutations, resulted in reduced downstream signaling and proliferation in cultured cells (PMID: 29245078).||29245078|
|BRAF V600D NRAS dec exp||melanoma||no benefit||Binimetinib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600D and knockdown of NRAS demonstrated a decreased response to Mektovi (binimetinib) relative to cells without NRAS knockdown in culture (PMID: 29245078).||29245078|
|NRAS amp||melanoma||predicted - sensitive||Binimetinib||Preclinical - Pdx||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Mektovi (binimetinib) treatment resulted in reduced tumor growth and proliferation in two patient-derived xenograft (PDX) melanoma models with NRAS copy number gain and without BRAF or NRAS mutations (PMID: 29245078).||29245078|