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|Authors||Kobayashi M, Inaguma S, Raffeld M, Kato H, Suzuki S, Wakasugi T, Mitsui A, Kuwabara Y, Lasota J, Ikeda H, Miettinen M, Takahashi S|
|Title||Epithelioid variant of gastrointestinal stromal tumor harboring PDGFRA mutation and MLH1 gene alteration: A case report.|
|Date||2019 Jul 04|
|Abstract Text||Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most important and common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the stomach. GISTs are usually driven by activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA genes. It is known that activating gene mutations predicts, to a certain extent, not only the morphology of the tumor cells but also a response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we present a case of an epithelioid variant of GIST harboring PDGFRA and MLH1 gene alterations in the stomach of a 55-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor of 98 mm with multiple cysts showed exophytic growth from the gastric fundus. Histopathologically, it consisted of scattered medium-sized epithelioid tumor cells in a loose myxoid background. Based on c-kit and DOG-1 immunoreactivity and a PDGFRA mutation (p.Trp559_Arg560del), the tumor was diagnosed as an epithelioid variant GIST. Interestingly, it had a gene alteration (p.Met524Ile) in the MLH1 gene of unknown pathogenicity. It was assigned to Group 3a (low risk for malignant behavior). After surgery, the patient has been on imatinib therapy and disease-free for 10 months.|
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|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
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|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|MLH1||M524I||missense||unknown||MLH1 M524I lies within the EXO1-interacting region of the Mlh1 protein (UniProt.org). M524I has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 31273885), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Mlh1 protein is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2020).|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|MLH1 M524I PDGFRA W559_R560del||gastrointestinal stromal tumor||predicted - sensitive||Imatinib||Case Reports/Case Series||Actionable||In a clinical case study, Gleevec (imatinib) treatment resulted in disease-free survival for over 10 months in a patient with epithelioid variant of gastrointestinal stromal tumor harboring PDGFRA W559_R560del and MLH1 M524I (PMID: 31273885).||31273885|