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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Hilliard TS, Gaisina IN, Muehlbauer AG, Gaisin AM, Gallier F, Burdette JE|
|Title||Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitors induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and inhibit in-vivo tumor growth.|
|Abstract Text||Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. Paclitaxel/carboplatin is the current drug therapy used to treat ovarian cancer, but most women develop drug resistance and recurrence of the disease, necessitating alternative strategies for treatment. A possible molecular target for cancer therapy is glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a downstream kinase in the Wnt signaling pathway that is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Novel maleimide-based GSK3β inhibitors (GSK3βi) were synthesized, selected, and tested in vitro using SKOV3 and OVCA432 serous ovarian cancer cell lines. From a panel of 10 inhibitors, GSK3βi 9ING41 was found to be the most effective in vitro. 9ING41 induced apoptosis as indicated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-positive nuclear condensation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The mechanism for apoptosis was through caspase-3 cleavage. GSK3βi upregulated phosphorylation of the inhibitory serine residue of GSK3β in OVCA432 and SKOV3 cell lines and also inhibited phosphorylation of the downstream target glycogen synthase. An in-vivo xenograft study using SKOV3 cells demonstrated that tumor progression was hindered by 9ING41 in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 9ING41 was greater than 500 mg/kg in rats. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed 9ING41 to have a bioavailability of 4.5% and to be well distributed in tissues. Therefore, GSK3β inhibitors alone or in combination with existing drugs may hinder the growth of serous ovarian cancers.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
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|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
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|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
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|Unknown unknown||ovarian cancer||not applicable||9-ING-41||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, treatment with 9-ING-41 induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in culture and led to reduced tumor volume in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 21878813).||21878813|