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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||James J, Ruggeri B, Armstrong RC, Rowbottom MW, Jones-Bolin S, Gunawardane RN, Dobrzanski P, Gardner MF, Zhao H, Cramer MD, Hunter K, Nepomuceno RR, Cheng M, Gitnick D, Yazdanian M, Insko DE, Ator MA, Apuy JL, Faraoni R, Dorsey BD, Williams M, Bhagwat SS, Holladay MW|
|Title||CEP-32496: a novel orally active BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with selective cellular and in vivo antitumor activity.|
|Journal||Molecular cancer therapeutics|
|Abstract Text||Mutations in the BRAF gene have been identified in approximately 7% of cancers, including 60% to 70% of melanomas, 29% to 83% of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 4% to 16% colorectal cancers, and a lesser extent in serous ovarian and non-small cell lung cancers. The V600E mutation is found in the vast majority of cases and is an activating mutation, conferring transforming and immortalization potential to cells. CEP-32496 is a potent BRAF inhibitor in an in vitro binding assay for mutated BRAF(V600E) (K(d) BRAF(V600E) = 14 nmol/L) and in a mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated (ER) kinase (MEK) phosphorylation (pMEK) inhibition assay in human melanoma (A375) and colorectal cancer (Colo-205) cell lines (IC(50) = 78 and 60 nmol/L). In vitro, CEP-32496 has multikinase binding activity at other cancer targets of interest; however, it exhibits selective cellular cytotoxicity for BRAF(V600E) versus wild-type cells. CEP-32496 is orally bioavailable in multiple preclinical species (>95% in rats, dogs, and monkeys) and has single oral dose pharmacodynamic inhibition (10-55 mg/kg) of both pMEK and pERK in BRAF(V600E) colon carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Sustained tumor stasis and regressions are observed with oral administration (30-100 mg/kg twice daily) against BRAF(V600E) melanoma and colon carcinoma xenografts, with no adverse effects. Little or no epithelial hyperplasia was observed in rodents and primates with prolonged oral administration and sustained exposure. CEP-32496 benchmarks favorably with respect to other kinase inhibitors, including RAF-265 (phase I), sorafenib, (approved), and vemurafenib (PLX4032/RG7204, approved). CEP-32496 represents a novel and pharmacologically active BRAF inhibitor with a favorable side effect profile currently in clinical development.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|RXDX-105||AC013773|CEP-32496|Agerafenib||ABL Inhibitor (pan) 8 ABL1 Inhibitor 6 BCR-ABL Inhibitor 27 BRAF Inhibitor 20 CRAF Inhibitor 11 KIT Inhibitor 52 PDGFR-beta Inhibitor 14 RET Inhibitor 41 VEGFR2 Inhibitor 35||Agerafenib (RXDX-105) inhibits wild-type BRAF, BRAF V600E, c-RAF, ABL1 (and BCR-ABL), c-KIT, RET, PDGFR beta, and VEGFR2, potentially resulting in decreased tumor growth (PMID: 22319199, PMID: 31695841).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|BRAF V600E||colon carcinoma||sensitive||RXDX-105||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In preclinical studies, CEP-32496 (RXDX-105) reduced tumor volume and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models of a BRAF V600E mutant human colon carcinoma cell line (PMID: 22319199).||22319199|
|BRAF V600E||melanoma||sensitive||RXDX-105||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In preclinical studies, CEP-32496 (RXDX-105) reduced tumor volume and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models of a BRAF V600E mutant human melanoma cell line (PMID: 22319199).||22319199|