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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (22319199)
Authors James J, Ruggeri B, Armstrong RC, Rowbottom MW, Jones-Bolin S, Gunawardane RN, Dobrzanski P, Gardner MF, Zhao H, Cramer MD, Hunter K, Nepomuceno RR, Cheng M, Gitnick D, Yazdanian M, Insko DE, Ator MA, Apuy JL, Faraoni R, Dorsey BD, Williams M, Bhagwat SS, Holladay MW
Title CEP-32496: a novel orally active BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with selective cellular and in vivo antitumor activity.
Journal Molecular cancer therapeutics
Vol 11
Issue 4
Date 2012 Apr
Abstract Text Mutations in the BRAF gene have been identified in approximately 7% of cancers, including 60% to 70% of melanomas, 29% to 83% of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 4% to 16% colorectal cancers, and a lesser extent in serous ovarian and non-small cell lung cancers. The V600E mutation is found in the vast majority of cases and is an activating mutation, conferring transforming and immortalization potential to cells. CEP-32496 is a potent BRAF inhibitor in an in vitro binding assay for mutated BRAF(V600E) (K(d) BRAF(V600E) = 14 nmol/L) and in a mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated (ER) kinase (MEK) phosphorylation (pMEK) inhibition assay in human melanoma (A375) and colorectal cancer (Colo-205) cell lines (IC(50) = 78 and 60 nmol/L). In vitro, CEP-32496 has multikinase binding activity at other cancer targets of interest; however, it exhibits selective cellular cytotoxicity for BRAF(V600E) versus wild-type cells. CEP-32496 is orally bioavailable in multiple preclinical species (>95% in rats, dogs, and monkeys) and has single oral dose pharmacodynamic inhibition (10-55 mg/kg) of both pMEK and pERK in BRAF(V600E) colon carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Sustained tumor stasis and regressions are observed with oral administration (30-100 mg/kg twice daily) against BRAF(V600E) melanoma and colon carcinoma xenografts, with no adverse effects. Little or no epithelial hyperplasia was observed in rodents and primates with prolonged oral administration and sustained exposure. CEP-32496 benchmarks favorably with respect to other kinase inhibitors, including RAF-265 (phase I), sorafenib, (approved), and vemurafenib (PLX4032/RG7204, approved). CEP-32496 represents a novel and pharmacologically active BRAF inhibitor with a favorable side effect profile currently in clinical development.


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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
RXDX-105 RXDX-105 7 3
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
RXDX-105 AC013773|CEP-32496|Agerafenib ABL Inhibitor (pan) 9 ABL1 Inhibitor 7 BCR-ABL Inhibitor 29 BRAF Inhibitor 21 CRAF Inhibitor 11 KIT Inhibitor 55 PDGFR-beta Inhibitor 14 RET Inhibitor 48 VEGFR2 Inhibitor 36 Agerafenib (RXDX-105) inhibits wild-type BRAF, BRAF V600E, c-RAF, ABL1 (and BCR-ABL), c-KIT, RET, PDGFR beta, and VEGFR2, potentially resulting in decreased tumor growth (PMID: 22319199, PMID: 31695841).
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF V600E colon carcinoma sensitive RXDX-105 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In preclinical studies, CEP-32496 (RXDX-105) reduced tumor volume and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models of a BRAF V600E mutant human colon carcinoma cell line (PMID: 22319199). 22319199
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive RXDX-105 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In preclinical studies, CEP-32496 (RXDX-105) reduced tumor volume and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models of a BRAF V600E mutant human melanoma cell line (PMID: 22319199). 22319199