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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (32271354)
Authors Arrieta O, Barrón F, Ramírez-Tirado LA, Zatarain-Barrón ZL, Cardona AF, Díaz-García D, Yamamoto Ramos M, Mota-Vega B, Carmona A, Peralta Álvarez MP, Bautista Y, Aldaco F, Gerson R, Rolfo C, Rosell R
Title Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab Plus Docetaxel vs Docetaxel Alone in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The PROLUNG Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.
Journal JAMA oncology
Vol
Issue
Date 2020 Apr 09
URL
Abstract Text Because of socioeconomic factors, many patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) do not receive immunotherapy in the first-line setting. It is unknown if the combination of immunotherapy with chemotherapy can provide clinical benefits in immunotherapy-naive patients with disease progression after treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy.To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of pembrolizumab plus docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC following platinum-based chemotherapy regardless of EGFR variants or programmed cell death ligand 1 status.The Pembrolizumab Plus Docetaxel for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (PROLUNG) trial randomized 78 patients with histologically confirmed advanced NSCLC in a 1:1 ratio to receive either pembrolizumab plus docetaxel or docetaxel alone from December 2016 through May 2019.The experimental arm received docetaxel on day 1 (75 mg/m2) plus pembrolizumab on day 8 (200 mg) every 3 weeks for up to 6 cycles followed by pembrolizumab maintenance until progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The control arm received docetaxel monotherapy.The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and safety.Among 78 recruited patients, 32 (41%) were men, 34 (44%) were never smokers, and 25 (32%) had an EGFR/ALK alteration. Forty patients were allocated to receive pembrolizumab plus docetaxel, and 38 were allocated to receive docetaxel. A statistically significant difference in ORR, assessed by an independent reviewer, was found in patients receiving pembrolizumab plus docetaxel vs patients receiving docetaxel (42.5% vs 15.8%; odds ratio, 3.94; 95% CI, 1.34-11.54; P = .01). Patients without EGFR variations had a considerable difference in ORR of 35.7% vs 12.0% (P = .06), whereas patients with EGFR variations had an ORR of 58.3% vs 23.1% (P = .14). Overall, PFS was longer in patients who received pembrolizumab plus docetaxel (9.5 months; 95% CI, 4.2-not reached) than in patients who received docetaxel (3.9 months; 95% CI, 3.2-5.7) (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13-0.46; P < .001). For patients without variations, PFS was 9.5 months (95% CI, 3.9-not reached) vs 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.5-5.3) (P < .001), whereas in patients with EGFR variations, PFS was 6.8 months (95% CI, 6.2-not reached) vs 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.3-6.2) (P = .04). In terms of safety, 23% (9 of 40) vs 5% (2 of 38) of patients experienced grade 1 to 2 pneumonitis in the pembrolizumab plus docetaxel and docetaxel arms, respectively (P = .03), while 28% (11 of 40) vs 3% (1 of 38) experienced any-grade hypothyroidism (P = .002). No new safety signals were identified.In this phase 2 study, the combination of pembrolizumab plus docetaxel was well tolerated and substantially improved ORR and PFS in patients with advanced NSCLC who had previous progression after platinum-based chemotherapy, including NSCLC with EGFR variations.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02574598.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
Unknown unknown lung non-small cell carcinoma not applicable Docetaxel + Pembrolizumab Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial (PROLUNG), combination of Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Taxotere (docetaxel) significantly improved objective response rate (42.5% vs 15.8%, OR=3.94, p=0.01) and progression-free survival (PFS) (9.5 vs 3.9 mo, HR=0.24, p<0.001) compared to Taxotere (docetaxel) alone in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, PFS was improved in patients with (6.8 vs 3.5 mo, p=0.04) and without (9.5 vs 4.1 mo, p<0.01) EGFR alterations (PMID: 32271354; NCT02574598). 32271354