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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (30559419)
Authors Yao Z, Gao Y, Su W, Yaeger R, Tao J, Na N, Zhang Y, Zhang C, Rymar A, Tao A, Timaul NM, Mcgriskin R, Outmezguine NA, Zhao H, Chang Q, Qeriqi B, Barbacid M, de Stanchina E, Hyman DM, Bollag G, Rosen N
Title RAF inhibitor PLX8394 selectively disrupts BRAF dimers and RAS-independent BRAF-mutant-driven signaling.
Journal Nature medicine
Vol 25
Issue 2
Date 2019 02
URL
Abstract Text Activating BRAF mutants and fusions signal as RAS-independent constitutively active dimers with the exception of BRAF V600 mutant alleles which can function as active monomers1. Current RAF inhibitors are monomer selective, they potently inhibit BRAF V600 monomers but their inhibition of RAF dimers is limited by induction of negative cooperativity when bound to one site in the dimer1-3. Moreover, acquired resistance to these drugs is usually due to molecular lesions that cause V600 mutants to dimerize4-8. We show here that PLX8394, a new RAF inhibitor9, inhibits ERK signaling by specifically disrupting BRAF-containing dimers, including BRAF homodimers and BRAF-CRAF heterodimers, but not CRAF homodimers or ARAF-containing dimers. Differences in the amino acid residues in the amino (N)-terminal portion of the kinase domain of RAF isoforms are responsible for this differential vulnerability. As a BRAF-specific dimer breaker, PLX8394 selectively inhibits ERK signaling in tumors driven by dimeric BRAF mutants, including BRAF fusions and splice variants as well as BRAF V600 monomers, but spares RAF function in normal cells in which CRAF homodimers can drive signaling. Our work suggests that drugs with these properties will be safe and useful for treating tumors driven by activating BRAF mutants or fusions.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
PLX8394 PLX 8394|PLX-8394 BRAF Inhibitor 20 CRAF Inhibitor 11 PLX8394 is a RAF inhibitor that inhibits wild-type and mutant BRAF, as well as CRAF, and does not paradoxically activate MAPK signaling, potentially resulting in decreased proliferation of BRAF-mutant tumor cells (PMID: 26466569, PMID: 24283590, PMID: 28659148, PMID: 30559419).
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
BRAF D448Y missense unknown BRAF D448Y does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D448Y results in decreased sensitivity of Braf homodimers to drug-mediated disruption, and activation of truncated Braf dimers comparable to the wild-type protein in an in vitro assay in combination with D449Y (PMID: 30559419), but has not been individually characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
BRAF D449Y missense unknown BRAF D449Y does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D449Y results in decreased sensitivity of Braf homodimers to drug-mediated disruption, and activation of truncated Braf dimers comparable to the wild-type protein in an in vitro assay in combination with D448Y (PMID: 30559419), but has not been individually characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF G466V lung cancer predicted - sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, lung cancer cells harboring BRAF G466V demonstrated sensitivity to PLX8394 treatment in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BGB659 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB659 treatment inhibited Erk phosphorylation and reduced proliferation of a melanoma cells harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform (p61) of V600E in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Braftovi (encorafenib) treatment inhibited Erk phosphorylation and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells harboring monomeric BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a cell line xenograft model of melanoma harboring NRAS Q61K demonstrated resistance to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G466V colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Erbitux (cetuximab) treatment inhibited Erk signaling and reduced tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF G466V (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, LY3009120 treatment inhibited Erk phosphorylation and reduced proliferation of a melanoma cells harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform (p61) of V600E in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
NRAS Q61R melanoma predicted - sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, LY3009120 treatment inhibited Erk activation and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61R and wild-type RAF in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF K601E colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Erbitux (cetuximab) treatment did not inhibit Erk signaling or reduce tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF K601E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G596R colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF G596R demonstrated sensitivity to PLX8394 treatment in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF K601E colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment did not inhibit tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF K601E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF L597R prostate cancer sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment inhibited Erk signaling and reduced proliferation of prostate cancer cells harboring BRAF L597R in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
NRAS Q61R melanoma predicted - sensitive BGB659 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB659 treatment inhibited Erk activation and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61R and wild-type RAF in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
NRAS Q61R melanoma resistant PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61R demonstrated resistance to PLX8394 treatment in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
NRAS Q61R melanoma predicted - sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 treatment inhibited Erk activation and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61R and wild-type RAF in culture, but at a higher concentration than was required to inhibit melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G466V colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment in combination with Erbitux (cetuximab) inhibited tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF G466V, but did not improve efficacy compared to Erbitux (cetuximab) treatment alone (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600K colon cancer sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment inhibited Erk signaling and reduced proliferation of colon cancer cells harboring BRAF V600K in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF K601E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + PLX8394 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment in combination with Erbitux (cetuximab) inhibited Erk signaling and reduced tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF K601E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF K601E colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment resulted in partial inhibition of tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF K601E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment inhibited Erk phosphorylation and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform (p61) of V600E in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G466V colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + PLX8394 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment in combination with Erbitux (cetuximab) inhibited tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF G466V, but did not improve efficacy compared to Erbitux (cetuximab) treatment alone (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment did not inhibit Erk signaling or reduce tumor growth in a Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistant cell line xenograft model of melanoma harboring NRAS Q61K (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E BRAF over exp melanoma sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment inhibited Erk signaling and reduced tumor growth in a Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistant cell line xenograft model of melanoma overexpressing BRAF V600E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 treatment inhibited Erk phosphorylation and reduced proliferation of a melanoma cells harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform (p61) of V600E in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF V600E BRAF over exp melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a cell line xenograft model of melanoma overexpressing BRAF V600E demonstrated resistance to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G466V colorectal cancer predicted - resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment did not inhibit Erk signaling or reduce tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF G466V (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G466V colorectal cancer resistant PLX8394 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment did not inhibit Erk signaling or reduce tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF G466V (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF K601N chronic lymphocytic leukemia sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment inhibited Erk signaling and reduced proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells harboring BRAF K601N in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF G469A melanoma sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 treatment inhibited Erk signaling and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 30559419). 30559419
BRAF K601E colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Erbitux (cetuximab) treatment in combination with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) did not inhibit Erk signaling or reduce tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF K601E (PMID: 30559419). 30559419