Reference Detail

Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (25594040)
Authors Carlino MS, Todd JR, Rizos H
Title Resistance to c-Kit inhibitors in melanoma: insights for future therapies.
Journal Oncoscience
Vol 1
Issue 6
Date 2014
URL
Abstract Text Mutations activating the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit occur commonly in melanomas arising on mucosal membranes and acral skin. Clinical studies have demonstrated that selective inhibition of c-Kit is effective in treating patients with c-Kit mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumors, but c-Kit inhibitor activity has been disappointing in c-Kit mutant melanoma patients. Activated c-Kit utilises phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling as the dominant effector of cell proliferation and survival with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade serving as an ancillary survival pathway. We confirmed that these pathways are re-activated in melanoma cells with acquired resistance to c-Kit inhibitors and that these resistant sublines remain sensitive to the concurrent inhibition of MAPK and PI3K signalling. These findings suggest that durable responses in c-Kit mutant melanoma may require combination therapies that selectively inhibit critical downstream proliferative and survival pathways. We also discuss the interaction between targeted therapies and anti-tumor immune responses and the need to consider immunotherapies in new combinatorial treatment approaches.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
KIT A829P melanoma sensitive Dasatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Sprycel (dasatinib) demonstrated efficacy by inhibiting proliferation of cultured melanoma cells expressing KIT A829P (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT A829P melanoma resistant Imatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing KIT A829P demonstrated resistance to treatment with Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT A829P melanoma resistant Sunitinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing KIT A829P demonstrated resistance to treatment with Sutent (sunitinib) (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT T670I melanoma resistant Imatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing KIT T670I demonstrated resistance to treatment with Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT A829P melanoma sensitive Nilotinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tasigna (nilotinib) demonstrated efficacy by inhibiting proliferation of cultured melanoma cells expressing KIT A829P (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT T670I melanoma resistant Nilotinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing KIT T670I demonstrated resistance to treatment with Tasigna (nilotinib) (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT T670I melanoma resistant Dasatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing KIT T670I demonstrated resistance to treatment with Sprycel (dasatinib) (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040
KIT T670I melanoma sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) demonstrated efficacy by inhibiting proliferation of cultured melanoma cells expressing KIT T670I (PMID: 23582185, PMID: 25594040). 23582185 25594040