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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Cirone P, Andresen CJ, Eswaraka JR, Lappin PB, Bagi CM|
|Title||Patient-derived xenografts reveal limits to PI3K/mTOR- and MEK-mediated inhibition of bladder cancer.|
|Journal||Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology|
|Abstract Text||Metastatic bladder cancer is a serious condition with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 14 %, a rate that has remained unchanged for almost three decades. Thus, there is a profound need to identify the driving mutations for these aggressive tumors to better determine appropriate treatments. Mutational analyses of clinical samples suggest that mutations in either the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or RAS/MEK/ERK pathways drive bladder cancer progression, although it remains to be tested whether the inhibition of either (or both) of these pathways can arrest PI3K/mTOR- or Ras-driven proliferation.Herein, we used several bladder cancer cell lines to determine drug sensitivity according to genetic background and also studied mouse models of engrafted UM-UC-3 cells and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to test PI3K/mTOR and MEK inhibition in vivo.Inhibition of these pathways utilizing PF-04691502, a PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, and PD-0325901, a MEK inhibitor, slowed the tumor growth of PDX models of bladder cancer. The growth inhibitory effect of combination therapy was similar to that of the clinical maximum dose of cisplatin; mechanistically, this appeared to predominantly occur via drug-induced cytostatic growth inhibition as well as diminished vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in the tumor models. Kinase arrays of tumors harvested after treatment demonstrated activated p53 and Axl as well as STAT1 and STAT3.Taken together, these results indicate that clinically relevant doses of PF-04691502 and PD-0325901 can suppress bladder tumor growth in PDX models, thus offering additional potential treatment options by a precision medicine approach.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|Unknown unknown||urinary bladder cancer||not applicable||PD-0325901 + PF-04691502||Preclinical - Pdx||Actionable||In a preclinical study, PD-0325901, in combination with PF-04691502, delayed tumor growth in patient-derived xenograft models of bladder cancer (PMID: 24442130).||24442130|