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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (35130342)
Authors Smith CC, Levis MJ, Perl AE, Hill JE, Rosales M, Bahceci E
Title Molecular profile of FLT3-mutated relapsed/refractory patients with AML in the phase 3 ADMIRAL study of gilteritinib.
Journal Blood advances
Vol 6
Issue 7
Date 2022 Apr 12
URL
Abstract Text The phase 3 Study of ASP2215 Versus Salvage Chemotherapy in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) With FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase (FLT3) Mutation (ADMIRAL) trial demonstrated the superiority of the FLT3 inhibitor, gilteritinib, to salvage chemotherapy (SC) in patients with FLT3-mutated relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML. Baseline comutations, FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) allelic ratio and length, and treatment-emergent mutations were analyzed in patients in the ADMIRAL trial. Baseline comutations were grouped according to gene subgroups (DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation, transcription, chromatin-spliceosome, receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signaling, TP53-aneuploidy, NPM1, DNMT3A, DNMT3A/NPM1, WT-1, and IDH1/IDH2). Across all but 1 gene subgroup (TP53-aneuploidy), higher pretransplant response rates and a trend toward longer overall survival were observed with gilteritinib vs SC. Patients with DNMT3A/NPM1 comutations who received gilteritinib had the most favorable outcomes of any molecular subgroup analyzed. Survival outcomes with gilteritinib were not adversely affected by FLT3-ITD allelic ratio, FLT3-ITD length, or multiple FLT3-ITD mutations. Among patients who relapsed on gilteritinib, Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and FLT3 F691L gene mutations were the most common mutational events associated with treatment resistance. However, the occurrence of Ras/MAPK pathway gene mutations at baseline did not preclude a clinical benefit from gilteritinib. Acquisition of multiple Ras/MAPK pathway gene mutations at relapse suggests a high level of pathway reactivation is needed to overcome the gilteritinib treatment effect. These findings provide insight into the R/R AML molecular profile and the impact of FLT3 inhibitors on mutational evolution associated with treatment resistance and benefit of gilteritinib across a wide spectrum of molecular and genetic subgroups in FLT3-mutated R/R AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02421939.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
FLT3 I836X FLT3 Inhibitor
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References