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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Shen J, Meng Y, Wang K, Gao M, Du J, Wang J, Li Z, Zuo D, Wu Y|
|Title||EML4-ALK G1202R mutation induces EMT and confers resistance to ceritinib in NSCLC cells via activation of STAT3/Slug signaling.|
|Abstract Text||The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene occurs in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The development of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) is a major advance in treating NSCLC with the ALK fusion gene. Nevertheless, acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs ultimately limits their use. A prevalent mechanism of drug resistance in kinases occurs through the mutation of G1202R in ALK. However, the mechanisms underlying G1202R resistance to ceritinib are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of EML4-ALK G1202R mutation in A549 cells induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and significantly increased the migration and invasion abilities. These phenomena may be due to the upregulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), accompanied by the elevated expression of Slug in EML4-ALK G1202R mutant cells. Furthermore, the combination of ALK and STAT3 inhibitors restored the sensitivity of EML4-ALK G1202R mutant cells to ceritinib. In conclusion, these data indicate that the EML4-ALK G1202R mutation mediates the EMT phenotype by activating the STAT3/Slug signaling pathway, resulting in resistance to ceritinib, and that the combination of STAT3 and ALK inhibitors may overcome ALK mutation-driven drug resistance in the clinic.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|HJC0152||HJC-0152|HJC 0152||STAT3 Inhibitor 25||HJC0152 inhibits STAT3, potentially leading to induction of apoptosis and decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth (PMID: 30588091, PMID: 35085771).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|ALK||G1202R||missense||unknown||ALK G1202R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Alk protein (UniProt.org). G1202R demonstrates increased colony formation, decreased Cdh1 expression, increased migration and invasion, increased expression of metastatic factors Cdh2, Vim, Mmp2, Mmp9, and Slug in cell culture in the context of EML4-ALK (PMID: 35085771), and drug resistance in the context of ALK fusions (PMID: 22277784, PMID: 24736079, PMID: 35085771), but has not been individually characterized and therefore, its effect on Alk protein function is unknown.||Y|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|EML4 - ALK ALK G1202R||lung non-small cell carcinoma||sensitive||Ceritinib + HJC0152||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, HJC0152 and Zykadia (ceritinib) combination treatment increased apoptosis and decreased viability and colony formation in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line expressing EML4-ALK and ALK G1202R compared to either drug alone in culture (PMID: 35085771).||35085771|
|EML4 - ALK ALK G1202R||lung non-small cell carcinoma||sensitive||HJC0152||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, HJC0152 treatment decreased Stat signaling, migration, and invasion in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line expressing EML4-ALK and ALK G1202R in culture (PMID: 35085771).||35085771|