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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (35022320)
Authors Mehnert JM, Mitchell TC, Huang AC, Aleman TS, Kim BJ, Schuchter LM, Linette GP, Karakousis GC, Mitnick S, Giles L, Carberry M, Frey N, Kossenkov A, Groisberg R, Hernandez-Aya LF, Ansstas G, Silk AW, Chandra S, Sosman JA, Gimotty PA, Mick R, Amaravadi RK
Title BAMM (BRAF Autophagy and MEK Inhibition in Melanoma): A Phase I/II Trial of Dabrafenib, Trametinib, and Hydroxychloroquine in Advanced BRAFV600-mutant Melanoma.
Abstract Text Autophagy is a resistance mechanism to BRAF/MEK inhibition in BRAFV600-mutant melanoma. Here we used hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to inhibit autophagy in combination with dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily and trametinib 2 mg every day (D+T).We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial in four centers of HCQ + D+T in patients with advanced BRAFV600-mutant melanoma. The primary objectives were the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and the one-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of >53%.Thirty-four patients were evaluable for one-year PFS rate. Patient demographics were as follows: elevated lactate dehydrogenase: 47%; stage IV M1c/M1d: 52%; prior immunotherapy: 50%. In phase I, there was no dose-limiting toxicity. HCQ 600 mg orally twice daily with D+T was the RP2D. The one-year PFS rate was 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 31.0%-65.5%], median PFS was 11.2 months (95% CI, 5.4-16.9 months), and response rate (RR) was 85% (95% CI, 64%-95%). The complete RR was 41% and median overall survival (OS) was 26.5 months. In a patient with elevated LDH (n = 16), the RR was 88% and median PFS and OS were 7.3 and 22 months, respectively.HCQ + D+T was well tolerated and produced a high RR but did not meet criteria for success for the one-year PFS rate. There was a high proportion of patients with pretreated and elevated LDH, an increasingly common demographic in patients receiving targeted therapy. In this difficult-to-treat population, the RR and PFS were encouraging. A randomized trial of D+T + HCQ or placebo in patients with BRAFV600-mutant melanoma with elevated LDH and previous immunotherapy is being conducted.


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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF V600X melanoma predicted - sensitive Dabrafenib + Hydroxychloroquine + Trametinib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase I/II trial (BAMM), the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), Mekinist (trametinib), and Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) resulted in a 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 48.2%, a median PFS of 11.2 mo, a response rate (RR) of 85% (29/34, 14 complete, 15 partial responses), and median overall survival (OS) of 26.5 mo in patients with advanced BRAF V600-mutant melanoma, RR, mPFS, and OS were 88%, 7.3, and 22 mo in patients with elevated LDH (n=16) (PMID: 35022320; NCT02257424). 35022320