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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (25193512)
Authors Hunter FW, Hsu HL, Su J, Pullen SM, Wilson WR, Wang J
Title Dual targeting of hypoxia and homologous recombination repair dysfunction in triple-negative breast cancer.
Journal Molecular cancer therapeutics
Vol 13
Issue 11
Date 2014 Nov
URL
Abstract Text Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor clinical outcome and few validated drug targets. Two prevalent features of TNBC, tumor hypoxia and derangement of homologous recombination (HR) repair, are potentially exploitable for therapy. This study investigated whether hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) of DNA-damaging cytotoxins may inhibit growth of TNBC by simultaneously addressing these two targets. We measured in vitro activity of HAP of DNA breakers (tirapazamine, SN30000) and alkylators (TH-302, PR-104, SN30548) in TNBC cell lines and isogenic models, and related this to measures of HR repair and expression of prodrug-activating enzymes. Antitumor activity of HAP was examined in isogenic BRCA2-knockout xenograft models and compared with platinum chemotherapy. All five HAP selectively inhibited growth of TNBC cell lines under hypoxia. Sensitivity to HAP was not strongly associated with BRCA1 genotype. However, HAP sensitivity was enhanced by suppression of HR (assessed by radiation-induced RAD51 focus formation) when BRCA1 and PALB2 were knocked down in a common (MDA-MB-231) background. Furthermore, knockout of BRCA2 markedly sensitized DLD-1 cells to the clinical nitrogen mustard prodrugs TH-302 and PR-104 and significantly augmented sterilization of clonogens by these agents in xenografts, both as monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy, but had less effect on activity of the benzotriazine di-N-oxide SN30000. PR-104 monotherapy was more effective than cisplatin at inhibiting growth of BRCA2-knockout tumors at equitoxic doses. This study demonstrates the potential for HAP of nitrogen mustards to simultaneously exploit hypoxia and HR defects in tumors, with translational implications for TNBC and other HR-deficient malignancies.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
Unknown unknown triple-receptor negative breast cancer not applicable Tirapazamine Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tirazone (tirapazamine) inhibited growth of triple-receptor negative breast cancer cell lines under hypoxic culture conditions, regardless of their BRCA1 status (PMID: 25193512). 25193512
Unknown unknown triple-receptor negative breast cancer not applicable PR-104 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PR-104 inhibited growth of triple-receptor negative breast cancer cell lines under hypoxic culture conditions, regardless of their BRCA1 status (PMID: 25193512). 25193512
Unknown unknown triple-receptor negative breast cancer not applicable SN30000 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SN30000 inhibited growth of triple-receptor negative breast cancer cell lines under hypoxic culture conditions, regardless of their BRCA1 status (PMID: 25193512). 25193512
Unknown unknown triple-receptor negative breast cancer not applicable Evofosfamide Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, TH-302 inhibited growth of triple-receptor negative breast cancer cell lines under hypoxic conditions, regardless of their BRCA1 status (PMID: 25193512). 25193512