The aim was to determine the potential of the allosteric mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, everolimus, to act in combination with cytotoxic anticancer compounds in vitro and in vivo. A concomitant combination in vitro showed no evidence of antagonism, but enhanced the antiproliferative effects (additive to synergistic) with cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and patupilone. Everolimus (1-5 mg/kg/d orally) was evaluated for antitumor activity in vivo alone or in combination with suboptimal cytotoxic doses using athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous human H-596 lung, KB-31 cervical, or HCT-116 colon tumor xenografts. Everolimus monotherapy was very well tolerated and caused inhibition of tumor growth, rather than regression, and this was associated with a dose-dependent decline in tumor pS6 levels, a key downstream protein of mammalian target of rapamycin. At the doses used, the cytotoxics inhibited tumor growth and caused tolerable body-weight loss. Concomitant combinations of cisplatin, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, or patupilone with everolimus produced cooperative antitumor effects, in some cases producing regressions without clinically significant increases in toxicity. In contrast, combinations with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil were less well tolerated. Alternative administration schedules were tested for cisplatin, gemcitabine, or paclitaxel combined with everolimus: these did not dramatically affect cisplatin or gemcitabine activity or tolerability but were antagonistic for paclitaxel. Everolimus showed promising maintenance activity after treatment with doxorubicin or paclitaxel ceased. Overall, the results confirm that everolimus is an effective, well-tolerated suppressor of experimental human tumor growth, and although it did not show strong potentiation of efficacy, antitumor activity in vivo was increased without marked increases in toxicity, supporting clinical use of everolimus as a partner for conventional cytotoxics.