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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Tsai YT, Chuang MJ, Tang SH, Wu ST, Chen YC, Sun GH, Hsiao PW, Huang SM, Lee HJ, Yu CP, Ho JY, Lin HK, Chen MR, Lin CC, Chang SY, Lin VC, Yu DS, Cha TL|
|Title||Novel Cancer Therapeutics with Allosteric Modulation of the Mitochondrial C-Raf-DAPK Complex by Raf Inhibitor Combination Therapy.|
|Date||2015 Sep 1|
|Abstract Text||Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells. Mitochondrial C-Raf is a potential cancer therapeutic target, as it regulates mitochondrial function and is localized to the mitochondria by its N-terminal domain. However, Raf inhibitor monotherapy can induce S338 phosphorylation of C-Raf (pC-Raf(S338)) and impede therapy. This study identified the interaction of C-Raf with S308 phosphorylated DAPK (pDAPK(S308)), which together became colocalized in the mitochondria to facilitate mitochondrial remodeling. Combined use of the Raf inhibitors sorafenib and GW5074 had synergistic anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo, but targeted mitochondrial function, rather than the canonical Raf signaling pathway. C-Raf depletion in knockout MEF(C-Raf-/-) or siRNA knockdown ACHN renal cancer cells abrogated the cytotoxicity of combination therapy. Crystal structure simulation showed that GW5074 bound to C-Raf and induced a C-Raf conformational change that enhanced sorafenib-binding affinity. In the presence of pDAPK(S308), this drug-target interaction compromised the mitochondrial targeting effect of the N-terminal domain of C-Raf, which induced two-hit damages to cancer cells. First, combination therapy facilitated pC-Raf(S338) and pDAPK(S308) translocation from mitochondria to cytoplasm, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Second, ROS facilitated PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of pDAPK(S308) to DAPK. PP2A then dissociated from the C-Raf-DAPK complex and induced profound cancer cell death. Increased pDAPK(S308) modification was also observed in renal cancer tissues, which correlated with poor disease-free survival and poor overall survival in renal cancer patients. Besides mediating the anticancer effect, pDAPK(S308) may serve as a predictive biomarker for Raf inhibitors combination therapy, suggesting an ideal preclinical model that is worthy of clinical translation.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|Unknown unknown||Advanced Solid Tumor||not applicable||GW5074 + Sorafenib||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, the combination of GW5074 and Nexavar (sorafenib) induced cell death in several tumor cell lines, and phosphorylation of DAPK at amino acid S308 correlated positively with response to therapy (PMID: 26100670).||26100670|
|Unknown unknown||renal cell carcinoma||not applicable||GW5074 + Sorafenib||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, the combination of GW5074 and Nexavar (sorafenib) worked synergistically to induce cell death in renal cell carcinoma cells in culture and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft and spontaneous mouse models of renal cell carcinoma (PMID: 26100670).||26100670|