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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Krytska K, Ryles HT, Sano R, Raman P, Infarinato NR, Hansel TD, Makena MR, Song MM, Reynolds CP, Mossé YP|
|Title||Crizotinib Synergizes with Chemotherapy in Preclinical Models of Neuroblastoma.|
|Journal||Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research|
|Date||2016 Feb 15|
|Abstract Text||The presence of an ALK aberration correlates with inferior survival for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. The emergence of ALK inhibitors such as crizotinib has provided novel treatment opportunities. However, certain ALK mutations result in de novo crizotinib resistance, and a phase I trial of crizotinib showed a lack of response in patients harboring those ALK mutations. Thus, understanding mechanisms of resistance and defining circumvention strategies for the clinic is critical.The sensitivity of human neuroblastoma-derived cell lines, cell line-derived, and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models with varying ALK statuses to crizotinib combined with topotecan and cyclophosphamide (topo/cyclo) was examined. Cultured cells and xenografts were evaluated for effects of these drugs on proliferation, signaling, and cell death, and assessment of synergy.In neuroblastoma murine xenografts harboring the most common ALK mutations, including those mutations associated with resistance to crizotinib (but not in those with wild-type ALK), crizotinib combined with topo/cyclo enhanced tumor responses and mouse event-free survival. Crizotinib + topo/cyclo showed synergistic cytotoxicity and higher caspase-dependent apoptosis than crizotinib or topo/cyclo alone in neuroblastoma cell lines with ALK aberrations (mutation or amplification).Combining crizotinib with chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in treating newly diagnosed patients with high-risk neuroblastoma restores sensitivity in preclinical models harboring both sensitive ALK aberrations and de novo-resistant ALK mutations. These data support clinical testing of crizotinib and conventional chemotherapy with the goal of integrating ALK inhibition into multiagent therapy for ALK-aberrant neuroblastoma patients.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|ALK R1275Q||neuroblastoma||sensitive||Crizotinib + Cyclophosphamide + Topotecan||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, the combination of Xalkori (crizotinib), Topotecan, and Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) synergized to sustain tumor regression in human neuroblastoma cell line xenograft models harboring ALK R1275Q and wild-type TP53 (PMID: 26438783).||26438783|
|Unknown unknown||neuroblastoma||not applicable||Cyclophosphamide + Topotecan||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Topotecan and Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide) combination treatment resulted in mild tumor growth delay in a neuroblastoma cell line xenograft model with wild-type ALK and TP53 H168R, and a model with wild-type ALK, wild-type TP53, and MDM2 amplification (PMID: 26438783).||26438783|