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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Kar S, Palit S, Ball WB, Das PK|
|Title||Carnosic acid modulates Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling by PP2A and induces intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells.|
|Journal||Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death|
|Abstract Text||This study investigates the efficacy of carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene, isolated from the plant rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), on androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. CA induced anti-proliferative effects in PC-3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was due to apoptotic induction as evident from flow-cytometry, DNA laddering and TUNEL assay. Apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-8, -9, -3 and -7, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome-c and decrease in expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins. Apoptosis was attenuated upon pretreatment with specific inhibitors of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-fmk) and caspase-9 (Z-LEHD-fmk) suggesting the involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades. Further, apoptosis resulted from the inhibition of IKK/NF-κB pathway as evident from decreased DNA binding activity, nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 and IκBα phosphorylation. The down-regulation of IKK/NF-κB was associated with inhibition of Akt phosphorylation and its kinase activity with a concomitant increase in the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Pharmacologic inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid and calyculin A, significantly reversed CA-mediated apoptotic events in PC-3 cells indicating that CA induced apoptosis by activation of PP2A through modulation of Akt/IKK/NF-κB pathway. In addition, CA induced apoptosis in another androgen refractory prostate cancer DU145 cells via intrinsic pathway as evidenced from the activation of caspase 3, cleavage of PARP, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome-c release. Carnosic acid, therefore, may have the potential for use in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Carnosic acid||Salvin||PP2A Activator 7||Carnosic acid is a polyphenol, which has been shown to activate PP2A thereby inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation (PMID: 22453599, PMID: 32456600).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|Unknown unknown||prostate cancer||not applicable||Carnosic acid||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, carnosic acid treatment of prostate cancer cells led to activation of PP2A, which resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation (PMID: 22453599).||22453599|