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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Schittenhelm MM, Shiraga S, Schroeder A, Corbin AS, Griffith D, Lee FY, Bokemeyer C, Deininger MW, Druker BJ, Heinrich MC|
|Title||Dasatinib (BMS-354825), a dual SRC/ABL kinase inhibitor, inhibits the kinase activity of wild-type, juxtamembrane, and activation loop mutant KIT isoforms associated with human malignancies.|
|Abstract Text||Activating mutations of the activation loop of KIT are associated with certain human neoplasms, including the majority of patients with systemic mast cell disorders, as well as cases of seminoma, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is a potent inhibitor of wild-type (WT) KIT and certain mutant KIT isoforms and has become the standard of care for treating patients with metastatic GIST. However, KIT activation loop mutations involving codon D816 that are typically found in AML, systemic mastocytosis, and seminoma are insensitive to imatinib mesylate (IC50 > 5-10 micromol/L), and acquired KIT activation loop mutations can be associated with imatinib mesylate resistance in GIST. Dasatinib (formerly BMS-354825) is a small-molecule, ATP-competitive inhibitor of SRC and ABL tyrosine kinases with potency in the low nanomolar range. Some small-molecule SRC/ABL inhibitors also have potency against WT KIT kinase. Therefore, we hypothesized that dasatinib might inhibit the kinase activity of both WT and mutant KIT isoforms. We report herein that dasatinib potently inhibits WT KIT and juxtamembrane domain mutant KIT autophosphorylation and KIT-dependent activation of downstream pathways important for cell viability and cell survival, such as Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, and Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription. Furthermore, dasatinib is a potent inhibitor of imatinib-resistant KIT activation loop mutants and induces apoptosis in mast cell and leukemic cell lines expressing these mutations (potency against KIT D816Y >> D816F > D816V). Our studies suggest that dasatinib may have clinical efficacy against human neoplasms that are associated with gain-of-function KIT mutations.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|KIT||D816F||missense||gain of function||KIT D816F lies within the tyrosine kinase domain 2 of the Kit protein (PMID: 17555444). D816F results in constitutive phosphorylation of Kit and activation of Stat3, Mapk, and Akt signaling in cultured cells (PMID: 9990072, PMID: 16397263), and also confers resistance to imatinib in culture (PMID: 16397263).||Y|
|KIT||D816Y||missense||gain of function||KIT D816Y lies within the tyrosine kinase domain 2 of the Kit protein (PMID: 21640708). D816Y results in constitutive phosphorylation of Kit, activation of Akt and Mapk pathways in cultured cells (PMID: 21640708, PMID: 16397263), and confers resistance to imatinib in culture (PMID: 16397263).||Y|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|KIT D816Y||Advanced Solid Tumor||resistant||Imatinib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816Y were resistant to Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) in culture (PMID: 16397263).||16397263|
|KIT D816F||Advanced Solid Tumor||resistant||Imatinib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT D816F were resistant to Gleevec (imatinib mesylate) in culture (PMID: 16397263).||16397263|
|KIT V560D||Advanced Solid Tumor||sensitive||Dasatinib||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing KIT V560D were sensitive to Sprycel (dasatinib) in culture (PMID: 16397263).||16397263|