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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Wang Y, Wei J, Li L, Fan C, Sun Y|
|Title||Combined Use of Metformin and Everolimus Is Synergistic in the Treatment of Breast Cancer Cells.|
|Abstract Text||Everolimus inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and leads to decreased protein synthesis and decreased cancer cell proliferation in many experimental systems. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators such as metformin have similar actions in keeping with the TSC2/1 pathway linking activation of AMPK to inhibition of mTOR. Histopathological and biochemical studies of breast cancer show frequent dysregulation of the AMPK and the mTOR pathway. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and metformin in the treatment of breast cancer cells. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of everolimus alone or in combination with metformin on breast cancer cells. MTT assay was used to quantify the inhibitory effect of the drugs on breast cancer cells in vitro. SCID mice injected with HCC1428 cells followed by different treatments were used to assess the in vivo efficacy of different agents. Data showed that the combination of everolimus and metformin exerted synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of breast cancer cells both in culture and in a mouse xenograft model. Further, this combination abrogated S6 and 4EBP1phosphorylation. Collectively, we suggest that the combination of everolimus and metformin may be an effective regimen for treatment of breast cancer, hence warranting further evaluation of the combination in the clinic.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|Unknown unknown||breast cancer||not applicable||Metformin||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Glucophage (metformin) inhibited the growth of a breast cancer cell line in culture and resulted in decreased tumor volume in a cell line xenograft model (PMID: 26351208).||26351208|
|Unknown unknown||breast cancer||not applicable||Everolimus||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Afinitor (everolimus) inhibited the growth of a breast cancer cell line in culture and resulted in decreased tumor volume in a cell line xenograft model (PMID: 26351208).||26351208|
|Unknown unknown||breast cancer||not applicable||Everolimus + Metformin||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, the combination of Afinitor (everolimus) and Glucophage (metformin) resulted in a synergistic effect in breast cancer cells, resulting in both greater inhibition of cell growth in culture and decreased tumor growth in cell line xenograft models when compared to either agent alone (PMID: 26351208).||26351208|