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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Paolino M, Choidas A, Wallner S, Pranjic B, Uribesalgo I, Loeser S, Jamieson AM, Langdon WY, Ikeda F, Fededa JP, Cronin SJ, Nitsch R, Schultz-Fademrecht C, Eickhoff J, Menninger S, Unger A, Torka R, Gruber T, Hinterleitner R, Baier G, Wolf D, Ullrich A, Klebl BM, Penninger JM|
|Title||The E3 ligase Cbl-b and TAM receptors regulate cancer metastasis via natural killer cells.|
|Date||2014 Mar 27|
|Abstract Text||Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of mortality in cancer patients and remains the key challenge for cancer therapy. New therapeutic approaches to block inhibitory pathways of the immune system have renewed hopes for the utility of such therapies. Here we show that genetic deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b (casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b) or targeted inactivation of its E3 ligase activity licenses natural killer (NK) cells to spontaneously reject metastatic tumours. The TAM tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (also known as Mertk) were identified as ubiquitylation substrates for Cbl-b. Treatment of wild-type NK cells with a newly developed small molecule TAM kinase inhibitor conferred therapeutic potential, efficiently enhancing anti-metastatic NK cell activity in vivo. Oral or intraperitoneal administration using this TAM inhibitor markedly reduced murine mammary cancer and melanoma metastases dependent on NK cells. We further report that the anticoagulant warfarin exerts anti-metastatic activity in mice via Cbl-b/TAM receptors in NK cells, providing a molecular explanation for a 50-year-old puzzle in cancer biology. This novel TAM/Cbl-b inhibitory pathway shows that it might be possible to develop a 'pill' that awakens the innate immune system to kill cancer metastases.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|LDC1267||AXL Inhibitor 27 MERTK Inhibitor 9 TYRO3 Inhibitor 8||LDC1267 is a specific TAM kinase inhibitor, with activity against TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK, which potentially enhances anti-tumor immune response and decreases tumor metastasis (PMID: 24553136).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|Unknown unknown||melanoma||not applicable||LDC1267||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, LDC1267 treatment resulted in decreased metastasis in a mouse model of metastatic melanoma (PMID: 24553136).||24553136|
|Unknown unknown||breast cancer||not applicable||LDC1267||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, LDC1267 treatment resulted in reduced l metastatic liver lesions, but did not impact primary tumor growth, in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer (PMID: 24553136).||24553136|