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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (28192597)
Authors Goyal L, Zheng H, Yurgelun MB, Abrams TA, Allen JN, Cleary JM, Knowles M, Regan E, Reardon A, Khachatryan A, Jain RK, Nardi V, Borger DR, Duda DG, Zhu AX
Title A phase 2 and biomarker study of cabozantinib in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma.
Journal Cancer
Vol 123
Issue 11
Date 2017 Jun 01
URL
Abstract Text Advanced cholangiocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis, and no standard treatment exists beyond first-line gemcitabine/platinum-based chemotherapy. A single-arm, phase 2 and biomarker study of cabozantinib, a multikinase inhibitor with potent activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and MET, was performed for patients with advanced refractory cholangiocarcinoma.Previously treated patients with unresectable or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma received cabozantinib (60 mg orally and daily on a continuous schedule). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Tumor MET expression and plasma biomarkers were evaluated.The study enrolled 19 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (female, 68%; median age, 67 years; intrahepatic vs extrahepatic, 84% vs 16%). The median PFS was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval, 1.6-5.4 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval, 2.7-10.5 months). Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 89% of the patients and included neutropenia (5%), hyperbilirubinemia (5%), epistaxis (5%), bowel perforation (5%), enterocutaneous fistulas (5%), and hypertension (11%). One patient with 3 + MET expression in the tumor stayed on treatment for 278 days, but the MET expression did not correlate with the outcomes in the overall study population. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, and stromal cell-derived factor 1α increased and soluble VEGFR2 and angiopoietin 2 decreased after treatment (all P values < .01). Plasma tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 was inversely correlated with PFS, and soluble MET (sMET) and interleukin 6 were inversely correlated with OS.In unselected patients with cholangiocarcinoma, cabozantinib demonstrated limited activity and significant toxicity. In the first clinical trial to assess the role of MET inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma, 1 patient with a MET-high tumor had a prolonged benefit from treatment. Baseline plasma soluble MET was associated with OS. Any further development of this drug in cholangiocarcinoma should include a dose reduction and a biomarker-driven approach. Cancer 2017;123:1979-1988. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
Unknown unknown cholangiocarcinoma not applicable Cabozantinib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, Cometriq (cabozantinib) treatment resulted in a median progression free survival of 1.8 months, and a median overall survival of 5.2 months in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma, but also induced grade 3/4 adverse events in 89% (17/19) of the patients (PMID: 28192597). 28192597