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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (28285684)
Authors Ou SI, Lee TK, Young L, Fernandez-Rocha MY, Pavlick D, Schrock AB, Zhu VW, Milliken J, Ali SM, Gitlitz BJ
Title Dual occurrence of ALK G1202R solvent front mutation and small cell lung cancer transformation as resistance mechanisms to second generation ALK inhibitors without prior exposure to crizotinib. Pitfall of solely relying on liquid re-biopsy?
Abstract Text Development of the acquired ALK G1202R solvent front mutation and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation have both been independently reported as resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors in ALK-rearranged (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients but have not been reported in the same patient. Here we report an ALK+ NSCLC patient who had disease progression after ceritinib and then alectinib where an ALK G1202R mutation was detected on circulating tumor (ct) DNA prior to enrollment onto a trial of another next generation ALK inhibitor, lorlatinib. The patient's central nervous system (CNS) metastases responded to lorlatinib together with clearance of ALK G1202R mutation by repeat ctDNA assay. However, the patient developed a new large pericardial effusion. Resected pericardium from the pericardial window revealed SCLC transformation with positive immunostaining for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and ALK (D5F3 antibody). Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of the tumor infiltrating pericardium revealed the retainment of an ALK rearrangement with emergence of an inactivating Rb1 mutation (C706Y) and loss of exons 1-11 in p53 that was not detected in the original tumor tissue at diagnosis. The patient was subsequently treated with carboplatin/etoposide and alectinib, but had rapid clinical deterioration and died. The patient never received crizotinib. This case illustrates that multiple/compound resistance mechanisms to ALK inhibitors can occur and provide supporting information that loss of p53 and Rb1 are important in SCLC transformation. If clinically feasible, tissue-based re-biopsy allowing histological examination and CGP remains the gold standard to assess resistance mechanism(s) and to direct subsequent rational clinical care.


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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
ALK rearrange ALK G1202R lung non-small cell carcinoma predicted - resistant Alectinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, ALK G1202R was identified in a patient with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung carcinoma after the disease progressed while on Zykadia (ceritinib) followed by Alecensa (alectinib) therapy (PMID: 28285684). 28285684
ALK rearrange RB1 C706F TP53 loss lung small cell carcinoma predicted - resistant Lorlatinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, RB1 C706F and loss of exons 1-11 in TP53 were identified in the pericardium infiltrating small cell lung cancer that developed while on Lorlatinib (PF-06463922) treatment in a patient with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung carcinoma (PMID: 28285684). 28285684