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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (28053021)
Authors Beatty GL, O'Dwyer PJ, Clark J, Shi JG, Bowman KJ, Scherle PA, Newton RC, Schaub R, Maleski J, Leopold L, Gajewski TF
Title First-in-Human Phase I Study of the Oral Inhibitor of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 Epacadostat (INCB024360) in Patients with Advanced Solid Malignancies.
Journal Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vol 23
Issue 13
Date 2017 Jul 01
URL
Abstract Text Purpose: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine. Overexpressed in many solid malignancies, IDO1 can promote tumor escape from host immunosurveillance. This first-in-human phase I study investigated the maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of epacadostat (INCB024360), a potent and selective inhibitor of IDO1.Experimental Design: Fifty-two patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with epacadostat [50 mg once daily or 50, 100, 300, 400, 500, 600, or 700 mg twice daily (BID)] in a dose-escalation 3 + 3 design and evaluated in 28-day cycles. Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.Results: One dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) occurred at the dose of 300 mg BID (grade 3, radiation pneumonitis); another DLT occurred at 400 mg BID (grade 3, fatigue). The most common adverse events in >20% of patients overall were fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspnea, back pain, and cough. Treatment produced significant dose-dependent reductions in plasma kynurenine levels and in the plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio at all doses and in all patients. Near maximal changes were observed at doses of ≥100 mg BID with >80% to 90% inhibition of IDO1 achieved throughout the dosing period. Although no objective responses were detected, stable disease lasting ≥16 weeks was observed in 7 of 52 patients.Conclusions: Epacadostat was generally well tolerated, effectively normalized kynurenine levels, and produced maximal inhibition of IDO1 activity at doses of ≥100 mg BID. Studies investigating epacadostat in combination with other immunomodulatory drugs are ongoing. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3269-76. ©2017 AACR.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
Unknown unknown Advanced Solid Tumor not applicable Epacadostat Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with Epacadostat resulted in stable disease in 13% (7/52) of patients with advanced solid tumors for greater than or equal to 16 weeks, including two patients with melanoma who previously failed on immunotherapy (PMID: 28053021). 28053021
Unknown unknown melanoma not applicable Epacadostat Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with Epacadostat resulted in stable disease in 13% (7/52) of patients with advanced solid tumors for greater than or equal to 16 weeks, including two patients with melanoma who previously failed on immunotherapy (PMID: 28053021). 28053021