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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Hong SP, Ahn SK|
|Title||Discovery of a novel pan-RAF inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of BRAFV600E mutant cancer.|
|Date||2017 Aug 15|
|Abstract Text||BRAF mutations, especially BRAF V600E, are a frequent occurrence in malignant melanomas. The BRAF inhibitors are used as the care standard for BRAF-mutant metastatic melanomas. However, melanomas rapidly develop resistance to BRAF inhibitors after a median response duration of 6months, and the subsequent rapid development of cutaneous toxicity is enhanced by the paradoxical activation of CRAF. In this study, we discovered a potent and selective pan-RAF inhibitor: INU-152. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the inhibition of pan-RAF with INU-152 completely disrupts the MAPK pathway in cancer cells bearing BRAF or RAS mutations.Using a structure-based molecular modeling, we discovered INU-152, which is a potent and selective pan-RAF inhibitor. In kinase assays against RAF proteins, INU-152 exhibited a potent effect against RAF isoforms. INU-152 was tested for its inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cells bearing BRAFV600E. To study in vivo effects, INU-152 was administered using human melanoma and colorectal cancer xenograft models. To explore INU-152's potential as a prospective drug candidate, pharmacokinetic studies and toxicity tests were performed using mice.To inhibit and suppress paradoxical activation in mutant RAS cancer cells completely, it is important for RAF inhibitors to exhibit potent inhibitory activities against RAF isoforms.INU-152 inhibits all RAF isoforms and inhibits MAPK pathways in mutant BRAF cells. More importantly, INU-152 exhibits minimal paradoxical pathway activation in melanoma cells with mutant RAS. INU-152 exhibits anti-tumor activities in xenograft models carrying BRAF mutations.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|INU-152||RAF Inhibitor (Pan) 21||INU-152 is a small molecule pan-RAF inhibitor, which reduces downstream MAPK pathway signaling and may inhibit growth of BRAF-mutant tumors (PMID: 28645859).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|BRAF V600E||colorectal cancer||sensitive||INU-152||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, INU-152 inhibited growth of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and reduced tumor growth in BRAF V600E-mutant colorectal cancer cell line xenograft models (PMID: 28645859).||28645859|
|BRAF V600E||melanoma||sensitive||INU-152||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, INU-152 reduced MEK and ERK phosphorylation and growth of a melanona cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 28645859).||28645859|