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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (32457407)
Authors Chu YH, Dias-Santagata D, Farahani AA, Boyraz B, Faquin WC, Nosé V, Sadow PM
Title Clinicopathologic and molecular characterization of NTRK-rearranged thyroid carcinoma (NRTC).
Journal Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Vol
Issue
Date 2020 May 26
URL
Abstract Text Primary thyroid neoplasms with actionable NTRK rearrangements are rare, and their clinical behavior, histologic characteristics, and molecular landscape are not well understood. We report an institutional series of eleven NTRK-rearranged thyroid carcinomas (NRTC) by performing clinicopathologic review and next-generation sequencing for targeted mutations and gene rearrangements. The NRTC encompass a histomorphologic spectrum of ten papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), including one with high-grade features, and one secretory carcinoma (SC), in ten adults and one adolescent. All NRTC were characterized by an unusual multinodular growth pattern, extensive lymphovascular invasion, and cervical lymph node metastases at initial presentation. Immunophenotypically, while most cases were positive for TTF1 and PAX8, the SC case was negative/weak for these markers and instead diffusely expressed GATA3, mammaglobin and S100. Observed gene rearrangements included ETV6-NTRK3 (n = 4, including the SC), TPR-NTRK1 (n = 2), RBPMS-NTRK3 (n = 2), SQSTM1-NTRK1 (n = 1), SQSTM1-NTRK3 (n = 1), and EML4-NTRK3 (n = 1). Mutation profiling revealed a concurrent TERT promotor mutation C228T in two (22%) patients and a novel frameshift MEN1 deletion in one. All patients received total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. Despite frequent development of persistent/recurrent disease (9 cases, 82%) and distant metastases (6 cases; 55%), no tumor-related death occurred over a median (range) follow-up of 44 (11 to 471) months. Three patients received NTRK inhibitor therapy, with the SC case showing complete resolution and two other patients experiencing 33% and 69.7% decrease of disease burden. Although the range of features is variable, NRTC appear to be clinically aggressive tumors with high metastatic rate but relatively low mortality with NTRK inhibitor therapy. The histologic findings of multinodular growth and extensive lymphovascular spread, seen in all NRTC, including PTC and SC, may serve as useful histomorphologic clues to prompt NTRK status testing. We also present the first report of concurrent TERT promotor activating mutation which did not appear to confer entrectinib resistance to NRTC.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
EML4 - NTRK3 thyroid gland papillary carcinoma predicted - sensitive Entrectinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma harboring EML4-NTRK3 demonstrated a 69.7% decrease in disease burden after 34 cycles of treatment with Rozlytrek (entrectinib) (PMID: 32457407). 32457407