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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (29950351)
Authors Lim HY, Merle P, Weiss KH, Yau T, Ross P, Mazzaferro V, Blanc JF, Ma YT, Yen CJ, Kocsis J, Choo SP, Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Gérolami R, Dufour JF, Gane EJ, Ryoo BY, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Dao T, Yeo W, Lamlertthon W, Thongsawat S, Teufel M, Roth K, Reis D, Childs BH, Krissel H, Llovet JM
Title Phase II Studies with Refametinib or Refametinib plus Sorafenib in Patients with RAS-Mutated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Journal Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vol 24
Issue 19
Date 2018 Oct 01
URL
Abstract Text Purpose: Refametinib, an oral MEK inhibitor, has demonstrated antitumor activity in combination with sorafenib in patients with RAS-mutated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Two phase II studies evaluated the efficacy of refametinib monotherapy and refametinib plus sorafenib in patients with RAS-mutant unresectable or metastatic HCC.Patients and Methods: Eligible patients with RAS mutations of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) determined by beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics technology received twice-daily refametinib 50 mg ± sorafenib 400 mg. Potential biomarkers were assessed in ctDNA via next-generation sequencing (NGS).Results: Of 1,318 patients screened, 59 (4.4%) had a RAS mutation, of whom 16 received refametinib and 16 received refametinib plus sorafenib. With refametinib monotherapy, the objective response rate (ORR) was 0%, the disease control rate (DCR) was 56.3%, overall survival (OS) was 5.8 months, and progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.9 months. With refametinib plus sorafenib, the ORR was 6.3%, the DCR was 43.8%, OS was 12.7 months, and PFS was 1.5 months. In both studies, time to progression was 2.8 months. Treatment-emergent toxicities included fatigue, hypertension, and acneiform rash. Twenty-seven patients had ctDNA samples available for NGS. The most frequently detected mutations were in TERT (63.0%), TP53 (48.1%), and β-catenin (CTNNB1; 37.0%).Conclusions: Prospective testing for RAS family mutations using ctDNA was a feasible, noninvasive approach for large-scale mutational testing in patients with HCC. A median OS of 12.7 months with refametinib plus sorafenib in this small population of RAS-mutant patients may indicate a synergistic effect between sorafenib and refametinib-this preliminary finding should be further explored. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4650-61. ©2018 AACR.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
NRAS mutant hepatocellular carcinoma sensitive Refametinib + Sorafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, Refametinib (BAY86-9766) and Nexavar (sorafenib) combination treatment resulted in an objective response rate of 6.3% (1/16), a disease control rate of 43.8% (7/16), an overall survival of 12.7 months, and a progression-free survival of 1.5 months in patients unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma harboring RAS (NRAS and KRAS) mutations (PMID: 29950351; NCT01915602). 29950351