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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Drilon A, Lin JJ, Filleron T, Ni A, Milia J, Bergagnini I, Hatzoglou V, Velcheti V, Offin M, Li B, Carbone DP, Besse B, Mok T, Awad MM, Wolf J, Owen D, Camidge DR, Riely GJ, Peled N, Kris MG, Mazieres J, Gainor JF, Gautschi O|
|Title||Frequency of Brain Metastases and Multikinase Inhibitor Outcomes in Patients With RET-Rearranged Lung Cancers.|
|Abstract Text||In ret proto-oncogene (RET)-rearranged lung cancers, data on the frequency of brain metastases and, in particular, the outcomes of multikinase inhibitor therapy in patients with intracranial disease are not well characterized.A global, multi-institutional registry (cohort A, n = 114) and a bi-institutional data set (cohort B, n = 71) of RET-rearranged lung cancer patients were analyzed. Patients were eligible if they had stage IV lung cancers harboring a RET rearrangement by local testing. The incidence of brain metastases and outcomes with multikinase inhibitor therapy were determined.The frequency of brain metastases at the time of diagnosis of stage IV disease was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18%-32%) in all patients from both cohorts. The lifetime prevalence of brain metastasis in stage IV disease was 46% (95% CI: 34%-58%) in patients for whom longitudinal data was available. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases was significantly different (p = 0.0039) between RET-, ROS1-, and ALK receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK)-rearranged lung cancers, with RET intermediate between the other two groups. Although intracranial response data was not available in cohort A, the median progression-free survival of multikinase inhibitor therapy (cabozantinib, vandetanib, or sunitinib) in patients with brain metastases was 2.1 months (95% CI: 1.3-2.9 months, n = 10). In cohort B, an intracranial response was observed in 2 of 11 patients (18%) treated with cabozantinib, vandetanib (± everolimus), ponatinib, or alectinib; the median overall progression-free survival (intracranial and extracranial) was 3.9 months (95% CI: 2.0-4.9 months).Brain metastases occur frequently in RET-rearranged lung cancers, and outcomes with multikinase inhibitor therapy in general are suboptimal. Novel RET-directed targeted therapy strategies are needed.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|RET rearrange||lung non-small cell carcinoma||predicted - sensitive||Alectinib||Case Reports/Case Series||Actionable||In a retrospective analysis, Alecensa (alectinib) treatment resulted an intracranial response in 1 of 2 patients with RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (PMID: 30017832).||30017832|
|RET rearrange||lung non-small cell carcinoma||no benefit||Ponatinib||Case Reports/Case Series||Actionable||In a retrospective analysis, multikinase inhibitor treatment demonstrated suboptimal clinical efficacy in RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer patients with measurable baseline brain metastasis, with a confirmed intracranial response rate of 18% (2/11); Iclusig (ponatinib) treatment resulted in no intracranial response in 4 patients with evaluable brain metastasis (PMID: 30017832).||30017832|