Reference Detail


Missing content? – Request curation!

Request curation for specific Genes, Variants, or PubMed publications.

Have questions, comments, or suggestions? - Let us know!

Email us at :

Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (30017832)
Authors Drilon A, Lin JJ, Filleron T, Ni A, Milia J, Bergagnini I, Hatzoglou V, Velcheti V, Offin M, Li B, Carbone DP, Besse B, Mok T, Awad MM, Wolf J, Owen D, Camidge DR, Riely GJ, Peled N, Kris MG, Mazieres J, Gainor JF, Gautschi O
Title Frequency of Brain Metastases and Multikinase Inhibitor Outcomes in Patients With RET-Rearranged Lung Cancers.
Abstract Text In ret proto-oncogene (RET)-rearranged lung cancers, data on the frequency of brain metastases and, in particular, the outcomes of multikinase inhibitor therapy in patients with intracranial disease are not well characterized.A global, multi-institutional registry (cohort A, n = 114) and a bi-institutional data set (cohort B, n = 71) of RET-rearranged lung cancer patients were analyzed. Patients were eligible if they had stage IV lung cancers harboring a RET rearrangement by local testing. The incidence of brain metastases and outcomes with multikinase inhibitor therapy were determined.The frequency of brain metastases at the time of diagnosis of stage IV disease was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18%-32%) in all patients from both cohorts. The lifetime prevalence of brain metastasis in stage IV disease was 46% (95% CI: 34%-58%) in patients for whom longitudinal data was available. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases was significantly different (p = 0.0039) between RET-, ROS1-, and ALK receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK)-rearranged lung cancers, with RET intermediate between the other two groups. Although intracranial response data was not available in cohort A, the median progression-free survival of multikinase inhibitor therapy (cabozantinib, vandetanib, or sunitinib) in patients with brain metastases was 2.1 months (95% CI: 1.3-2.9 months, n = 10). In cohort B, an intracranial response was observed in 2 of 11 patients (18%) treated with cabozantinib, vandetanib (± everolimus), ponatinib, or alectinib; the median overall progression-free survival (intracranial and extracranial) was 3.9 months (95% CI: 2.0-4.9 months).Brain metastases occur frequently in RET-rearranged lung cancers, and outcomes with multikinase inhibitor therapy in general are suboptimal. Novel RET-directed targeted therapy strategies are needed.


  • Case insensitive filtering will display rows if any text in any cell matches the filter term
  • Use simple literal full or partial string matches
  • Separate multiple filter terms with a space. Any order may be used (i. e. a b c and c b a are equivalent )
  • Filtering will only apply to rows that are already loaded on the page. Filtering has no impact on query parameters.
  • Use quotes to match on a longer phrase with spaces (i.e. "mtor c1483f")


  • Generally, the default sort order for tables is set to be first column ascending; however, specific tables may set a different default sort order.
  • Click on any column header arrows to sort by that column
  • Hold down the Shift key and click multiple columns to sort by more than one column. Be sure to set ascending or descending order for a given column before moving on to the next column.

Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
RET rearrange lung non-small cell carcinoma no benefit Ponatinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a retrospective analysis, multikinase inhibitor treatment demonstrated suboptimal clinical efficacy in RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer patients with measurable baseline brain metastasis, with a confirmed intracranial response rate of 18% (2/11); Iclusig (ponatinib) treatment resulted in no intracranial response in 4 patients with evaluable brain metastasis (PMID: 30017832). 30017832
RET rearrange lung non-small cell carcinoma predicted - sensitive Alectinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a retrospective analysis, Alecensa (alectinib) treatment resulted an intracranial response in 1 of 2 patients with RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (PMID: 30017832). 30017832