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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Kim S, Kim TM, Kim DW, Go H, Keam B, Lee SH, Ku JL, Chung DH, Heo DS|
|Title||Heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with acquired crizotinib resistance in ALK-rearranged lung cancer.|
|Journal||Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer|
|Abstract Text||Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is markedly sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib. However, acquired resistance to crizotinib is inevitable through several mechanisms. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify genetic alterations associated with crizotinib resistance.Tumor samples were derived from seven ALK-positive NSCLC patients who showed acquired resistance to crizotinib, and these patients were analyzed for ALK, EGFR, and KRAS mutations and ALK and EGFR gene amplifications. In vitro cytotoxicity of crizotinib and ALK downstream signals were compared between crizotinib-naive and -resistant NSCLC cells.After a median duration of 6 months (range, 4-12 months), seven ALK-positive NSCLC patients developed acquired resistance to crizotinib. Three patients harbored secondary ALK mutations, including one patient with both mutations: L1196M (n = 2) and G1269A (n = 2). Of note, one patient displayed ALK gene copy number gain (4.1-fold increase compared with the pre-crizotinib specimen) and EGFR L858R mutation with high polysomy. The amphiregulin concentration was high in the supernatant fluid from five patients with malignant pleural effusion (116.4-18934.0 pg/ml). SNU-2535 cells derived from a patient who harbored the G1269 mutation were resistant to crizotinib treatment similar to H3122 CR1 cells. L1196M and G1269A mutant clones were less sensitive to crizotinib and ALK downstream signals were ineffectively suppressed in these clones.Genetic changes associated with crizotinib resistance are heterogeneous in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients who respond to crizotinib and subsequently develop resistance.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|EML4 - ALK ALK G1269A||Alectinib|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|EML4 - ALK ALK G1269A||lung non-small cell carcinoma||sensitive||Alectinib||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Alecensa (alectinib) inhibited proliferation of a Xalkori (crizotinib)-resistant human non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring an EML-ALK fusion with ALK G1269A in culture and induced tumor regression in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 26849637, PMID: 23344087).||26849637 23344087|
|EML4 - ALK ALK L1196M ALK G1269A||lung non-small cell carcinoma||predicted - resistant||Crizotinib||Case Reports/Case Series||Actionable||In a clinical study, a patient with non-small cell lung cancer harboring EML4-ALK demonstrated a partial response when treated with Xalkori (crizotinib), however, after 6 months the patient progressed and was found to harbor two secondary resistance mutations, ALK G1269A and ALK L1196M (PMID: 23344087).||23344087|