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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (21515735)
Authors Brennan RC, Federico S, Bradley C, Zhang J, Flores-Otero J, Wilson M, Stewart C, Zhu F, Guy K, Dyer MA
Title Targeting the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma with subconjunctival Nutlin-3a.
Abstract Text Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life. The goals of retinoblastoma treatment are ocular salvage, vision preservation, and reduction of short- and long-term side effects without risking mortality because of tumor dissemination. To identify better chemotherapeutic combinations for the treatment of retinoblastoma, several groups have developed genetic mouse models and orthotopic xenograft models of human retinoblastoma for preclinical testing. Previous studies have implicated the MDMX protein in the suppression of the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma and shown that the MDM2/MDMX antagonist, Nutlin-3a, can efficiently induce p53-mediated cell death in retinoblastoma cell lines. However, Nutlin-3a cannot be administered systemically to treat retinoblastoma, because it has poor penetration across the blood-ocular barrier. Therefore, we developed an ocular formulation of Nutlin-3a, Nutlin-3a(OC), and tested the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of this new formulation in genetic and human retinoblastoma orthotopic xenograft models of retinoblastoma. Here, we show that Nutlin-3a(OC) specifically and efficiently targets the p53 pathway and that the combination of Nutlin-3a(OC) with systemic topotecan is a significantly better treatment for retinoblastoma than currently used chemotherapy in human orthotopic xenografts. Our studies provide a new standardized approach to evaluate and prioritize novel agents for incorporation into future clinical trials for retinoblastoma.


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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
RB1 inact mut retinoblastoma sensitive Nutlin-3a Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Nutlin-3a induced p53 pathway signaling in MDMX mouse models with retinoblastoma and 69% (70/102) of the eyes harvested from the mouse models demonstrated complete response or stable disease after 18 weeks of therapy (PMID: 21515735). 21515735