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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Smith CC, Lasater EA, Lin KC, Wang Q, McCreery MQ, Stewart WK, Damon LE, Perl AE, Jeschke GR, Sugita M, Carroll M, Kogan SC, Kuriyan J, Shah NP|
|Title||Crenolanib is a selective type I pan-FLT3 inhibitor.|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Date||2014 Apr 8|
|Abstract Text||Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent transformative therapies for several malignancies. Two critical features necessary for maximizing TKI tolerability and response duration are kinase selectivity and invulnerability to resistance-conferring kinase domain (KD) mutations in the intended target. No prior TKI has demonstrated both of these properties. Aiming to maximize selectivity, medicinal chemists have largely sought to create TKIs that bind to an inactive (type II) kinase conformation. Here we demonstrate that the investigational type I TKI crenolanib is a potent inhibitor of Fms tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication, a validated therapeutic target in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as all secondary KD mutants previously shown to confer resistance to the first highly active FLT3 TKI quizartinib. Moreover, crenolanib is highly selective for FLT3 relative to the closely related protein tyrosine kinase KIT, demonstrating that simultaneous FLT3/KIT inhibition, a prominent feature of other clinically active FLT3 TKIs, is not required for AML cell cytotoxicity in vitro and may contribute to undesirable toxicity in patients. A saturation mutagenesis screen of FLT3-internal tandem duplication failed to recover any resistant colonies in the presence of a crenolanib concentration well below what has been safely achieved in humans, suggesting that crenolanib has the potential to suppress KD mutation-mediated clinical resistance. Crenolanib represents the first TKI to exhibit both kinase selectivity and invulnerability to resistance-conferring KD mutations, which is unexpected of a type I inhibitor. Crenolanib has significant promise for achieving deep and durable responses in FLT3-mutant AML, and may have a profound impact upon future medicinal chemistry efforts in oncology.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|FLT3||D698N||missense||unknown||FLT3 D698N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Flt3 protein (UniProt.org). D698N has been demonstrated to occur as a secondary resistance mutation in the context of FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations (PMID: 25847190, PMID: 24623852), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Flt3 protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2022).||Y|
|FLT3||N841H||missense||unknown||FLT3 N841H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Flt3 protein (UniProt.org). N841H has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 32040554, PMID: 24623852, PMID: 16990784), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Flt3 protein function is unknown (PubMed, Aug 2022).|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|FLT3 D835H||acute myeloid leukemia||sensitive||Crenolanib||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Crenolanib (CP-868596) inhibited Flt3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in leukemia cells expressing FLT3 D835H (PMID: 24623852).||24623852|