Reference Detail

Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (25838391)
Authors Napolitano S, Martini G, Rinaldi B, Martinelli E, Donniacuo M, Berrino L, Vitagliano D, Morgillo F, Barra G, De Palma R, Merolla F, Ciardiello F, Troiani T
Title Primary and Acquired Resistance of Colorectal Cancer to Anti-EGFR Monoclonal Antibody Can Be Overcome by Combined Treatment of Regorafenib with Cetuximab.
Journal Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vol 21
Issue 13
Date 2015 Jul 01
URL
Abstract Text In colorectal cancer, the activation of the intracellular RAS-RAF and PIK3CA-AKT pathways has been implicated in the resistance to anti-EGFR mAbs. We have investigated the role of regorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, in combination with cetuximab, an anti-EGFR mAb, to overcome anti-EGFR resistance.We have tested, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of regorafenib in a panel of human colorectal cancer cell lines with a KRAS mutation (SW480, SW620, HCT116, LOVO, and HCT15) or with a BRAF mutation (HT29), as models of intrinsic resistance to cetuximab treatment, and in two human colorectal cancer cell lines (GEO and SW48) that are cetuximab-sensitive, as well as in their derived cells with acquired resistance to cetuximab (GEO-CR and SW48-CR).Treatment with regorafenib determined a dose-dependent growth inhibition in all colorectal cancer cell lines. The combined treatment with cetuximab and regorafenib induced synergistic antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in cetuximab-resistant cell lines by blocking MAPK and AKT pathways. Nude mice were injected s.c. with HCT116, HCT15, GEO-CR, and SW48-CR cells. The combined treatment caused significant tumor growth inhibition. Synergistic antitumor activity of regorafenib plus cetuximab was also observed in an orthotopic colorectal cancer model of HCT116 cells. In particular, the combined treatment induced a significant tumor growth inhibition in the primary tumor site (cecum) and completely prevented metastasis formation.The combined treatment with cetuximab and regorafenib could be a strategy to overcome resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Therapy Description
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
KRAS G12V colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G12V were resistant to Erbitux (cetuximab) in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391
KRAS G12V colorectal cancer sensitive Regorafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited growth, reduced Akt and Mapk phosphorylation, and induced apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cell lines harboring KRAS G12V in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391
KRAS G13D colorectal cancer sensitive Regorafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited growth, reduced Akt and Mapk phosphorylation, and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cell lines harboring KRAS G13D in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391
KRAS G12A colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Erbitux (cetuximab) inhibited growth of human colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G12A in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391
KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Regorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G13D were resistant to Stivarga (regorafenib) in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391
KRAS G12V colorectal cancer resistant Regorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G12V were resistant to Stivarga (regorafenib) in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391
KRAS G12A colorectal cancer resistant Regorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring KRAS G12A were resistant to Stivarga (regorafenib) in culture (PMID: 25838391). 25838391