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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (25370473)
Authors Carlino MS, Fung C, Shahheydari H, Todd JR, Boyd SC, Irvine M, Nagrial AM, Scolyer RA, Kefford RF, Long GV, Rizos H
Title Preexisting MEK1P124 mutations diminish response to BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma patients.
Journal Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vol 21
Issue 1
Date 2015 Jan 01
URL
Abstract Text MEK1 mutations in melanoma can confer resistance to BRAF inhibitors, although preexisting MEK1(P124) mutations do not preclude clinical responses. We sought to determine whether recurrent, preexisting MEK1(P124) mutations affected clinical outcome in BRAF inhibitor-treated patients with melanoma.Data from four published datasets were analyzed to determine whether preexisting MEK1(P124) mutations affect radiologic response or progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutant metastatic melanoma treated with vemurafenib or dabrafenib. The effects of MEK1(P124) mutations on MAPK pathway activity and response to BRAF inhibition were also investigated in a series of cell models.In a pooled analysis of 123 patients, the presence of a pretreatment MEK1(P124) mutation (N = 12, 10%) was associated with a poorer RECIST response (33% vs. 72% in MEK1(P124Q/S) vs. MEK1(P124) wild-type, P = 0.018), and a shorter PFS (median 3.1 vs. 4.8 months, P = 0.004). Furthermore, MEK1(P124Q/S) mutations were shown to have independent kinase activity and introduction of these mutations into a BRAF-mutant melanoma cell line diminished inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by dabrafenib and enhanced clonogenic survival in the presence of dabrafenib compared with cells ectopically expressing wild-type MEK1. Consistent with these data, two BRAF-mutant cell lines with endogenous MEK1(P124) mutations showed intermediate sensitivity to dabrafenib, but were highly sensitive to downstream inhibition of MEK or ERK.Taken together, our data indicate that preexisting MEK1(P124) mutations are associated with a reduced response to BRAF inhibitor therapy and identify a subset of patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma likely to benefit from combination therapies involving MEK or ERK inhibitors.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
MAP2K1 K57E missense gain of function MAP2K1 K57E does not lie within any known functional domains of the Map2k1 protein (UniProt.org). K57E confers a gain of function on the Map2k1 protein as demonstrated by increased activation of downstream Erk1/2 and has been associated with Braf inhibitor resistance in cell culture (PMID: 24463458, PMID: 25370473). Y
MAP2K1 P124Q missense unknown MAP2K1 P124Q lies within the protein kinase domain of the Map2k1 protein (UniProt.org). P124Q results in increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation in culture, and is associated with resistance to a Raf inhibitor (PMID: 25370473), but demonstrates autophosphorylation and kinase activity similar to wild-type Map2k1 in another study (PMID: 29753091), and therefore, its effect on Map2k1 protein function is unknown. Y
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L melanoma sensitive VX-11e Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, VX-11e inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124L in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124Q demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in cell culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma sensitive VX-11e Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, VX-11e inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124Q in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124L in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124Q in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124L demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124Q demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K57E melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, expression of MAP2K1 K57E in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E conferred resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473