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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Kang J, Chen HJ, Zhang XC, Su J, Zhou Q, Tu HY, Wang Z, Wang BC, Zhong WZ, Yang XN, Chen ZH, Ding Y, Wu X, Wang M, Fu JG, Yang Z, Zhang X, Shao YW, Wu YL, Yang JJ|
|Title||Heterogeneous responses and resistant mechanisms to crizotinib in ALK-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer.|
|Abstract Text||ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been proven effective for treating ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although patients present with variable responses and disease progression courses. The detailed underlying molecular mechanisms require further investigation to yield a better prognosis.Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) mutation profiling was performed on samples from 42 NSCLC patients confirmed positive for ALK rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry who experienced disease progression after crizotinib treatment.ALK rearrangements were not confirmed in six patients (14%) with other potential oncogenic drivers identified by NGS, who therefore did not respond to crizotinib and had significantly shorter overall survival (OS) compared to NGS ALK -positive patients. Fifteen ALK activating mutations were detected in 8 out of 26 post-treatment samples (31%), among which ALK L1196M and G1269A were the most common acquired mutations detected in half of the patients with ALK activating mutations. Dynamic monitoring of the genetic evolution in one patient revealed both spatial and temporal heterogeneity of resistant mechanisms during different ALK-TKI treatment courses. Activation of ALK downstream or bypass pathways was detected in patients without ALK activating mutations, such as genetic alterations in PIK3CA, MET, and KRAS. Interestingly, we identified two patients with acquired mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene POLE, which resulted in a dramatically increased tumor mutation burden, and might contribute to the poor response to crizotinib.Heterogeneous resistant mechanisms have been identified and correlate to diverse responses to crizotinib. Comprehensive and dynamic mutation profiling is required to better predict clinical outcomes.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|ALK||E1303K||missense||unknown||ALK E1303K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Alk protein (UniProt.org). E1303K has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 29978950), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Alk protein function is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2020).|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|EML4 - ALK ALK E1303K||lung non-small cell carcinoma||predicted - resistant||Crizotinib||Case Reports/Case Series||Actionable||In a clinical study, a patient with non-small cell lung cancer harboring EML4-ALK and ALK E1303K developed progressive disease 7 days after Xalkori (crizotinib) treatment (PMID: 29978950).||29978950|