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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (22237022)
Authors Zhang J, Benavente CA, McEvoy J, Flores-Otero J, Ding L, Chen X, Ulyanov A, Wu G, Wilson M, Wang J, Brennan R, Rusch M, Manning AL, Ma J, Easton J, Shurtleff S, Mullighan C, Pounds S, Mukatira S, Gupta P, Neale G, Zhao D, Lu C, Fulton RS, Fulton LL, Hong X, Dooling DJ, Ochoa K, Naeve C, Dyson NJ, Mardis ER, Bahrami A, Ellison D, Wilson RK, Downing JR, Dyer MA
Title A novel retinoblastoma therapy from genomic and epigenetic analyses.
Journal Nature
Vol 481
Issue 7381
Date 2012 Jan 19
URL
Abstract Text Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify the mutations that cooperate with RB1 loss, we performed whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas. The overall mutational rate was very low; RB1 was the only known cancer gene mutated. We then evaluated the role of RB1 in genome stability and considered non-genetic mechanisms of cancer pathway deregulation. For example, the proto-oncogene SYK is upregulated in retinoblastoma and is required for tumour cell survival. Targeting SYK with a small-molecule inhibitor induced retinoblastoma tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. Thus, retinoblastomas may develop quickly as a result of the epigenetic deregulation of key cancer pathways as a direct or indirect result of RB1 loss.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
BAY 61-3606 BAY 61-3606 1 0
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
BAY 61-3606 BAY-613606 SYK Inhibitor 13 BAY 61-3606 is a small molecule inhibitor of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), which may suppress cell growth (PMID: 22237022, PMID: 30347478).
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
RB1 inact mut retinoblastoma sensitive BAY 61-3606 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a retinoblastoma cell line was sensitive to BAY 61-3606 in cell culture and in xenograft models, demonstrating increased apoptosis (PMID: 22237022). 22237022
RB1 inact mut retinoblastoma sensitive Fostamatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, retinoblastoma cell lines demonstrated sensitivity to Fostamatinib resulting in cell death (PMID: 22237022). 22237022