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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Zhang J, Benavente CA, McEvoy J, Flores-Otero J, Ding L, Chen X, Ulyanov A, Wu G, Wilson M, Wang J, Brennan R, Rusch M, Manning AL, Ma J, Easton J, Shurtleff S, Mullighan C, Pounds S, Mukatira S, Gupta P, Neale G, Zhao D, Lu C, Fulton RS, Fulton LL, Hong X, Dooling DJ, Ochoa K, Naeve C, Dyson NJ, Mardis ER, Bahrami A, Ellison D, Wilson RK, Downing JR, Dyer MA|
|Title||A novel retinoblastoma therapy from genomic and epigenetic analyses.|
|Date||2012 Jan 19|
|Abstract Text||Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify the mutations that cooperate with RB1 loss, we performed whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas. The overall mutational rate was very low; RB1 was the only known cancer gene mutated. We then evaluated the role of RB1 in genome stability and considered non-genetic mechanisms of cancer pathway deregulation. For example, the proto-oncogene SYK is upregulated in retinoblastoma and is required for tumour cell survival. Targeting SYK with a small-molecule inhibitor induced retinoblastoma tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. Thus, retinoblastomas may develop quickly as a result of the epigenetic deregulation of key cancer pathways as a direct or indirect result of RB1 loss.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|BAY 61-3606||BAY-613606||SYK Inhibitor 13||BAY 61-3606 is a small molecule inhibitor of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), which may suppress cell growth (PMID: 22237022, PMID: 30347478).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|RB1 inact mut||retinoblastoma||sensitive||BAY 61-3606||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, a retinoblastoma cell line was sensitive to BAY 61-3606 in cell culture and in xenograft models, demonstrating increased apoptosis (PMID: 22237022).||22237022|
|RB1 inact mut||retinoblastoma||sensitive||Fostamatinib||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, retinoblastoma cell lines demonstrated sensitivity to Fostamatinib resulting in cell death (PMID: 22237022).||22237022|