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|Authors||Nichol Miller, Tim Sen Wang, Catherine Lee, Paul Severson, Eugene Ke, Ken Kobayashi, Richard Thomas Williams|
|Title||Antitumor activity of KIN-2787, a next-generation pan-RAF inhibitor, in combination with MEK inhibition in preclinical models of human NRAS mutant melanoma.|
|Journal||Journal of Clinical Oncology|
|Date||June 2, 2022|
|Abstract Text||e15099. Background: NRAS mutations which activate MAPK signaling represent oncogenic driver alterations in approximately 20% melanoma cases in the US. NRAS mutant melanomas are uniquely dependent upon CRAF rather than BRAF for activation of downstream MEK/ERK signaling. In BRAF mutant melanoma, approved RAF-targeted therapies are commonly used in combination with a MEK inhibitor which provides clinical benefit by inhibition of two targets within the oncogenic MAPK signaling pathway. Emerging data with pan-RAF inhibitors in early clinical development suggests benefit with and without combined MEK inhibition, yet no approved targeted therapy exists for NRAS mutant melanoma patients. KIN-2787 is a novel, orally available pan-RAF inhibitor designed to be effective in RAF-dependent cancers, regardless of isoform. Methods: Kinome profiling was evaluated by radiometric enzyme assay at Reaction Biology across 688 kinases (including wild type, atypical, and mutant). Cellular activity was assessed by suppression of downstream MAPK pathway signaling and cell growth inhibition in human tumor cell lines. Combination cell growth inhibition studies were performed in 9x5 dose matrices with KIN-2787 and binimetinib, respectively. Extended cell growth inhibition effects were assessed by Incucyte imaging. In vivo KIN-2787 and combination efficacy was evaluated in NRAS mutant xenograft models. Results: Kinome profiling of KIN-2787 revealed exquisite selectivity with only 2 of 669 non-RAF family kinases inhibited > 75% at 1 M KIN-2787 and retained ̃10x and 70x selectivity window against those two kinases, DDR1 and p38b, respectively, relative to RAF kinases. We previously reported KIN-2787 activity across BRAF, NRAS, and KRAS mutant tumor cell lines with greatest sensitivity in Class II and III dimer-driven BRAF models. Here, we evaluated NRAS mutant, BRAF WT melanoma for combination potential with binimetinib. Melanoma tumor cell lines bearing NRAS hotspot mutations demonstrated synergistic benefit with KIN-2787 combined with binimetinib. Daily KIN-2787 plus binimetinib treatment in NRAS mutant melanoma xenograft models resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition benefit relative to either agent alone and was associated with added MAPK pathway biomarker suppression. Conclusions: KIN-2787 is a highly selective, potent, next-generation, pan-RAF inhibitor with activity across BRAF and RAS mutant human tumor cell models. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies using KIN-2787 in combination with binimetinib demonstrated significant combination benefit in NRAS mutant melanoma models. Taken together with its unique selectively, these data support use of KIN-2787 in combination therapy in this patient segment. A Phase 1/1b dose escalation and expansion clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of KIN-2787 is ongoing (NCT04913285).|
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|NRAS act mut||melanoma||predicted - sensitive||Binimetinib + Exarafenib||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Exarafenib (KIN-2787) and Mektovi (binimetinib) combination treatment inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring NRAS mutations in culture, and resulted in improved tumor growth inhibition and Mapk pathway suppression in cell line xenograft models compared to either agent alone (J Clin Oncol 40, 2022 (suppl 16; abstr e15099)).||detail...|