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|Authors||Mathew E. Sowa; Bridget Kreger; Joelle Baddour; Yanke Liang; Jeffrey R. Simard; Laura Poling; Ping Li; Robert Yu; Ashley Hart; Roman V. Agafonov; Grace Sarkissian; Joe Sahil Patel; Richard Deibler; Kyle S. Cole; Scott Eron; David Cocozziello; Fazlur Rahman; Moses Moustakim; Christopher G. Nasveschuk; Katrina L. Jackson; Mark Fitzgerald; Victoria Garza; Morgan O’Shea; Gesine Veits; Jeremy L. Yap; Andrew J. Phillips; Elizabeth Norton; Adam S. Crystal; Stewart L. Fisher; Roy M. Pollock|
|Title||Preclinical evaluation of CFT1946 as a selective degrader of mutant BRAF for the treatment of BRAF driven cancers|
|Date||June 15, 2022|
|Abstract Text||The BRAF kinase is a critical node in the MAPK signaling pathway and is mutated in approximately 8% of human cancers including melanoma (~60%), thyroid (~60%), and lung adenocarcinoma (~10%). The most common mutation in BRAF is V600E (Class I), occurring in half of malignant melanomas. This mutation hyperactivates ERK and signals as a RAF inhibitor-sensitive monomer. BRAF inhibitors including vemurafenib, dabrafenib and encorafenib have produced impressive responses in V600X patients, however resistance usually emerges within a year, including RAS mutation, BRAFV600E amplification, and BRAFV600E intragenic deletion or splice variants. These inhibitors are also ineffective against non-V600 BRAF mutants (Class II & III). To address some of these limitations we have developed CFT1946, a bifunctional degradation activating compound (BiDAC™) degrader comprising a BRAF kinase domain targeting ligand linked to a cereblon ligand. CFT1946 is capable of degrading BRAF V600E (Class I), G469A (Class II), G466V (Class III) mutations, and the p61-BRAFV600E splice variant while maintaining exquisite selectivity against the proteome including WT BRAF and CRAF. In A375 cells, CFT1946 potently degraded BRAFV600E (Emax = 26%; DC50 = 14nM at 24hr) and, inhibited ERK phosphorylation (IC50 = 11nM at 24hr) and cell growth (GI50 = 94nM at 96hr) while having no effect in the mutant KRAS driven cell line HCT116. In A375 xenografts, oral delivery of CFT1946 resulted in deeper tumor regressions when dosed at 10 mg/kg PO BID and compared favorably to a clinically relevant dose of encorafenib. We further evaluated CFT1946 in an engineered A375-BRAFV600E/NRASQ61K double mutant model of BRAF inhibitor resistance. CFT1946 was able to degrade BRAFV600E in these cells and was much more effective than encorafenib at inhibiting viability in vitro. In this model, in vivo dosing of single agent CFT1946 caused robust tumor growth inhibition and combination with the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, resulted in tumor regressions. The combination of encorafenib and trametinib showed no activity in the same model. Next, we demonstrated that CFT1946 was able to degrade additional BRAF mutant proteins including G469A (Class II), G466V (Class III), and the p61-BRAFV600E splice variant using heterologous expression in HEK293T cells. Additionally, we also showed that CFT1946, but not encorafenib, inhibited proliferation of the BRAFG466V heterozygous lung tumor cell line H1666. Based on its activity in preclinical models, including models of BRAF inhibitor resistance, and its drug-like properties we are progressing CFT1946 as a candidate for clinical development in patients with solid tumors bearing BRAF V600X mutations. Further, given CFT1946’s activity on non-V600 BRAF mutations, we are continuing to explore CFT1946 and related BiDAC degraders as therapeutic options for patients bearing Class II or Class III BRAF mutations.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|CFT1946||CFT-1946|CFT 1946||BRAF Inhibitor 21||CFT1946 is a bifunctional degradation activation compound (BiDAC) degrader composed of a ligand that targets the BRAF kinase domain linked to a Cereblon ligand, which potentially induces degradation of mutant BRAF and inhibition of tumor growth (Cancer Res 2022;82(12_Suppl):Abstract nr 2158).|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|BRAF G466V||lung cancer||predicted - sensitive||CFT1946||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, CFT1946 treatment inhibited proliferation of a lung cancer cell line harboring heterozygous BRAF G466V in culture (Cancer Res 2022;82(12_Suppl):Abstract nr 2158).||detail...|