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Ref Type Abstract
PMID
Authors Namkyeong Kim; Jung Hee Park; Ky-Youb Nam; June H-J Han; Kyu-Tae Kim; Sandip Sengupta; Jeong Hyeok Yoon; Taebo Sim
Title Abstract 1627: PHI-501, a novel and potent pan-RAF inhibitor in metastatic melanoma
URL https://aacrjournals.org/cancerres/article/83/7_Supplement/1627/723603/Abstract-1627-PHI-501-a-novel-and-potent-pan-RAF
Abstract Text Background: PHI-501 has been developed as a novel inhibitor of NRAS mutated acute myeloid leukemia. Big data and artificial intelligence (AI)-based drug discovery platform and cell-based investigation identified PHI-501 repurposable against melanoma as a novel pan-RAF inhibitor. BRAF activated by the common V600E and other mutations, as well as by upstream NRAS mutation are frequent in malignant melanoma. Regardless of the therapeutic effect of class I BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib, dabrafenib and encorafenib, melanoma patients with BRAF non-V600/RAS mutations remain limited response. In this study, we evaluated PHI-501 to potently inhibit the tumor cell growth and overcome the limited response in melanoma. Methods: The growth inhibitory activity of PHI-501 was determined using CellTiter-Glo luminescent assay in a panel of cancer cell lines. The effect of PHI-501 on anchorage independent growth and cell proliferation compared to vemurafenib or belvarafenib (pan-RAF inhibitor) were tested in A375 (BRAFV600E), C8161 (BRAFG464E) and SK-MEL-2 (NRASQ61R) melanoma cell lines by soft agar assay, western blot and FACS analysis. To measure cell motility in a controlled environment, cells were cultured in monolayer followed by a wound-healing assay in a treatment with 0.1 µM of each compound for 12 hours. Anti-tumor activities of PHI-501 were evaluated in A375 or C8161 xenograft mouse in vivo model. Results: PHI-501 showed 3- to 119-fold more effective growth inhibition than other RAF inhibitors, vemurafenib and belvarafenib, in SK-MEL-2 (GI50: 0.15 µM for PHI-501 vs 7.13 µM and 0.37 µM, respectively) and C8161 (GI50: 0.33 µM for PHI-501 vs 39.56 µM and 2.10 µM, respectively) melanoma cell lines, and did not show a potential to paradoxical activation. PHI-501 induced melanoma cell apoptosis more efficiently than other RAF inhibitors, as shown in increased G0/G1-arrested and annexin V-positive cell population and abundant cleavage of PARP1 after drug treatment. In the cell wound-healing assay, PHI-501 exhibited promising antimetastatic potential via inhibiting migration of all tested melanoma cells by up to 70%, unlike other RAF inhibitors. Anti-tumor activity of PHI-501 was dose-proportional in A375 xenograft model. Tumor growth was significantly reduced in C8161 xenograft mice treated with PHI-501 (TGI: 75.0%), compared with vehicle and vemurafenib (TGI: 12.3%). Conclusion: PHI-501, a novel pan-RAF inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity. Melanoma cells harboring BRAF non-V600/NRAS or BRAF common V600E mutations exhibited significantly reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibited migration upon treatment with PHI-501. The results of this study suggest that PHI-501 has a potential to overcome the limited response in the treatment of melanoma, and warrant evaluation of PHI-501 as a single agent to treat both BRAF-and NRAS-mutated metastatic melanoma.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
PHI-501 PHI-501 3 0
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
PHI-501 PHI501|PHI 501 RAF Inhibitor (Pan) 28 PHI-501 is a pan-RAF inhibitor, which potentially reduces tumor cell migration and decreases tumor growth (Cancer Res (2023) 83 (7_Supplement): 1627).
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF G464E melanoma predicted - sensitive PHI-501 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PHI-501 inhibited growth and migration and induced apoptosis in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G464E in culture and inhibited tumor growth in a cell line xenograft model (Cancer Res (2023) 83 (7_Supplement): 1627). detail...
NRAS Q61R melanoma predicted - sensitive PHI-501 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PHI-501 inhibited growth and migration and induced apoptosis in a melanoma cell line harboring NRAS Q61R in culture (Cancer Res (2023) 83 (7_Supplement): 1627). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma predicted - sensitive PHI-501 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PHI-501 inhibited growth and migration and induced apoptosis in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and induced dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in a cell line xenograft model (Cancer Res (2023) 83 (7_Supplement): 1627). detail...