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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Davies H, Bignell GR, Cox C, Stephens P, Edkins S, Clegg S, Teague J, Woffendin H, Garnett MJ, Bottomley W, Davis N, Dicks E, Ewing R, Floyd Y, Gray K, Hall S, Hawes R, Hughes J, Kosmidou V, Menzies A, Mould C, Parker A, Stevens C, Watt S, Hooper S, Wilson R, Jayatilake H, Gusterson BA, Cooper C, Shipley J, Hargrave D, Pritchard-Jones K, Maitland N, Chenevix-Trench G, Riggins GJ, Bigner DD, Palmieri G, Cossu A, Flanagan A, Nicholson A, Ho JW, Leung SY, Yuen ST, Weber BL, Seigler HF, Darrow TL, Paterson H, Marais R, Marshall CJ, Wooster R, Stratton MR, Futreal PA|
|Title||Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer.|
|Date||2002 Jun 27|
|Abstract Text||Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase pathway mediates cellular responses to growth signals. RAS is mutated to an oncogenic form in about 15% of human cancer. The three RAF genes code for cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by binding RAS. Here we report BRAF somatic missense mutations in 66% of malignant melanomas and at lower frequency in a wide range of human cancers. All mutations are within the kinase domain, with a single substitution (V599E) accounting for 80%. Mutated BRAF proteins have elevated kinase activity and are transforming in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, RAS function is not required for the growth of cancer cell lines with the V599E mutation. As BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase that is commonly activated by somatic point mutation in human cancer, it may provide new therapeutic opportunities in malignant melanoma.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|BRAF||G464V||missense||gain of function||BRAF G464V (also reported as G463V) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G464V results in increased Braf kinase activity and increased downstream Mek and Erk activation (PMID: 12068308, PMID: 26343582), and in one of two cell lines, increased cell proliferation and viability compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785).|
|BRAF||G469A||missense||gain of function||BRAF G469A is a hotspot mutation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G469A results in increased Braf kinase activity and downstream activation of Erk, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 19010912, PMID: 12068308, PMID: 29533785).|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|NRAS Q61K||lung non-small cell carcinoma||decreased response||Gedatolisib||Preclinical||Actionable||In a preclinical study, human non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring NRAS Q61K had a decreased response to Gedatolisib (PKI-587) in culture (PMID: 21325073, PMID: 12068308).||21325073 12068308|