Gene Detail

Gene Symbol BRAF
Synonyms B-raf | B-RAF1 | BRAF1 | NS7 | RAFB1
Gene Description BRAF, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, is a member of the Raf family of serine/threonine protein kinases, which signals through the MAP kinase pathway to regulate cell proliferation and cell growth (PMID: 24737949, PMID: 29540830). BRAF mutations have been identified in a variety of cancers, including, colorectal (PMID: 30122982), lung (PMID: 29729495), thyroid (PMID: 12970315), and melanoma (PMID: 24737949), and a number of mutations have also been demonstrated to confer drug resistance (PMID: 27478040).
Entrez Id 673
Chromosome 7
Map Location 7q34
Canonical Transcript NM_004333

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Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
G466X missense unknown BRAF G466X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the glycine (G) at amino acid 466 by a different amino acid.
G466A missense unknown BRAF G466A (also reported as G465A) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). The functional effect of G466A (also reported as G465A) on Braf is unclear as it has been characterized both as having intermediate Braf kinase activity (PMID: 15035987) and low Braf kinase activity (PMID: 28783719), leads to Ras-dependent activation of downstream Erk in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and in one of two cell lines increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
S363F missense unknown BRAF S363F does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S363F has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 29903896), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Jan 2019).
R603* nonsense loss of function - predicted BRAF R603* results in a premature truncation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein at amino acid 603 of 766 (UniProt.org, PMID: 11032810). Due to the loss of the protein kinase domain (UniProt.org, PMID: 11032810), R603* is predicted to lead to a loss of function.
A712T missense no effect - predicted BRAF A712T lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A712T has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
E586K missense gain of function BRAF E586K (also reported as E585K) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E586K results in increased Braf kinase activity, and activation of Mek and Erk in cell culture (PMID: 15035987, PMID: 22510884), and increases cell proliferation and viability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two cell lines (PMID: 29533785).
L485_P490delinsY indel gain of function - predicted BRAF L485_P490delinsY results in a deletion of six amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the Braf protein kinase domain combined with the insertion of one new amino acid in the same location (PMID: 26732095). L485_P490delinsY is associated with increased MEK/ERK activation in cells also harboring L485_P490delinsF, and similar deletions result in Braf activation (PMID: 26732095), and therefore, L485_P490delinsY is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf protein.
G596X missense unknown BRAF G596X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the glycine (G) at amino acid 596 by a different amino acid.
V600L missense unknown BRAF V600L (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600L increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), however, has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf function is unknown.
H269Y missense unknown BRAF H269Y lies within the Phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H269Y has not been biochemically characterized, but results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
P676S missense no effect - predicted BRAF P676S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P676S has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
L485X missense unknown BRAF L485X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the leucine (L) at amino acid 485 by a different amino acid.
P731T missense unknown BRAF P731T does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P731T has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 29320312), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2019).
Q609H missense no effect - predicted BRAF Q609H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). Q609H has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
N581S missense unknown BRAF N581S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). The functional effect of N581S is unclear as it has been demonstrated to result in intermediate Braf kinase activity (PMID: 15035987), as well as low Braf kinase activity (PMID: 28783719), and results in Ras-dependent activation of ERK signaling in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), however in another study, N581S demonstrated increased transformation ability in one of two different cell lines as compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
Q262R missense unknown BRAF Q262R lies within the Phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger region of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). Q262R has not been characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
T599A missense loss of function BRAF T599A lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T599A does not result in increased MEK or ERK phosphorylation and does not transactivate CRAF (PMID: 22506009), and demonstrates decreased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in cell culture (PMID: 29533785).
G615R missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G615R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G615R has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
L514V missense gain of function - predicted BRAF L514V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L514V is predicted to lead to a gain of Braf function as indicated by moderate increase of Mek and Erk phosphorylation in culture, enhanced dimerization when expressed in cis with BRAF V600E, and is associated with resistance to Raf inhibitors (PMID: 29880583). Y
T488_Q493delinsK indel gain of function - predicted BRAF T488_Q493delinsK results in the deletion of six amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the Braf protein kinase domain combined with the insertion of one new amino acid in the same location (PMID: 26732095). T488_Q493delinsK has not been characterized, however, is predicted to result in a gain of function due to other characterized BRAF deletions in the same region (PMID: 26732095).
S637* nonsense loss of function - predicted BRAF S637* results in a premature truncation the Braf protein at amino acid 637 of 766 (UniProt.org). S637* has not been biochemically characterized, however, demonstrates an inability to induce cell viability and proliferation in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
A762V missense no effect - predicted BRAF A762V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A762V has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
S605N missense unknown BRAF S605N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S605N has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 29176861, PMID: 28628916, PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
W531C missense unknown BRAF W531C lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). W531I demonstrates activity and transformation ability comparable to wild-type Braf in cultured cells (PMID: 19206169) but, also demonstrated increased cell proliferation and viability in two different cell lines as compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
L505H missense gain of function BRAF L505H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L505H confers a gain of function to the Braf protein resulting in MEK/ERK activation and oncogenic transformation in cultured cells, and is associated with resistance to RAF inhibitors (PMID: 24283590). Y
N49I missense no effect - predicted BRAF N49I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N49I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
R462I missense unknown BRAF R462I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R462I results in activation of Braf and increased Erk signaling in cell culture (PMID: 15035987) but, in two different cell lines, induced similar cell proliferation and cell viability as wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
R462X missense unknown BRAF R462X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the arginine (R) at amino acid 462 by a different amino acid.
G469V missense gain of function BRAF G469V is a hotspot mutation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G469V results in increased Braf kinase activity and activation of downstream MEK and ERK in cell culture (PMID: 28947956, PMID: 26343582, PMID: 28783719), and in one of two cell lines, increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
T599_V600insETT insertion gain of function - predicted BRAF T599_V600insETT results in the insertion of 3 amino acids in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 599 and 600 (UniProt.org). BRAF T599_V600insETT has not been characterized, however other insertions between T599 and V600 are activating thus, T599_V600insETT is predicted to lead to a gain of Braf protein function (PMID: 16501605, PMID: 17297294, PMID: 21190184).
L485_P490delinsF indel gain of function - predicted BRAF L485_P490delinsF results in a deletion of six amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the Braf protein kinase domain combined with the insertion of one new amino acid in the same location (PMID: 26732095). L485_P490delinsF is associated with increased Erk phosphorylation in human tumor samples (PMID: 29544532), and increased activation of MEK/ERK signaling in combination with L485_P490delinsY in cultured cells (PMID: 26732095), and therefore is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf protein.
F468C missense gain of function BRAF F468C (also referred to as F467C) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). F468C confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased Braf kinase activity and downstream Erk phosphorylation, activation of NFkappaB signaling in reporter assays, and transformation of cultured cells (PMID: 15150094).
R509G missense no effect - predicted BRAF R509G lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R509C has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
R347* nonsense loss of function - predicted BRAF R347* results in a premature truncation of the of the 766 aa Braf protein at aa 347 (UniProt.org). Due to the loss of a portion of the protein kinase domain (UniProt.org), R347* is predicted to lead to a loss of Braf protein function.
V487_P492delinsA indel gain of function BRAF V487_P492delinsA results in a deletion of six amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the kinase domain of the Braf protein combined with the insertion of one new amino acid in the same location (PMID: 26732095). V487_P492delinsA confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as indicated by increased pathway signaling and cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 26732095).
T241X missense unknown BRAF T241X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the threonine (T) at amino acid 241 by a different amino acid.
G596C missense loss of function BRAF G596C lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G596C results in decreased Braf kinase activity, however, leads to activation of downstream MEK and ERK in combination with CRAF in cell culture (PMID: 28947956).
T488_P492del deletion gain of function - predicted BRAF T488_P492del results in the deletion of five amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the protein kinase domain in the Braf protein from amino acids 488 to 492 (PMID: 26732095). T488_P492del results in activation of Mek in cell culture (PMID: 26996308), and similar Braf deletions are activating (PMID: 26996308, PMID: 26732095), and therefore T488_P492del is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf function.
A320T missense no effect - predicted BRAF A320T lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A320T has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
F294L missense no effect - predicted BRAF F294L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). F294L has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
K483E missense unknown BRAF K483E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K483E results in increased transformation compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but also results in ERK1/2 phosphorylation level similar to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 27799065), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
L485Y missense unknown BRAF L485Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L485Y has been demonstrated to confer resistance to Raf inhibitor in cell culture (PMID: 19276360), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019). Y
A598T missense loss of function - predicted BRAF A598T lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A598T demonstrates a lack of Braf kinase activity in culture (PMID: 22926515), and therefore, is predicted to result in a loss of Braf protein function.
S605G missense unknown BRAF S605G lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S605G has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 16773193, PMID: 20635392), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2018).
L618F missense loss of function - predicted BRAF L618F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L618F has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
D594G missense unknown BRAF D594G lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594G has been demonstrated to result in impaired Braf kinase activity, but leads to increased activation of Erk signaling through CRAF in cell culture (PMID: 18794803, PMID: 28783719), however, has increased transforming ability in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
D587G missense unknown BRAF D587G lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D587G has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 24803665), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
K499N missense unknown BRAF K499N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K449N results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
R462K missense no effect - predicted BRAF R462K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R462K has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
Q257H missense unknown BRAF Q257H lies within the Phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger region of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). Q257H has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 28852190, PMID: 27147599), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V639I missense no effect - predicted BRAF V639I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V639I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
R444W missense unknown BRAF R444W does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R444W has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15578519), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
R188T missense no effect - predicted BRAF R188T lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R188T has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
P367R missense gain of function BRAF P367R does not lie within any known functional domains within the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P367R confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as indicated by increased Erk phosphorylation in culture and tumor formation in animal models, and demonstrates resistance to Egfr inhibitors in culture (PMID: 27478040). Y
N581T missense no effect - predicted BRAF N581T lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N581T has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
T599I missense gain of function BRAF T599I (also reported as T598I) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T599I results in increased Braf kinase activity, increased downstream Erk signaling (PMID: 15035987), and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
P453T missense unknown BRAF P453T does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P453T has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 27717198, PMID: 16404419), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
S607F missense loss of function - predicted BRAF S607F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S607F has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
D587E missense unknown BRAF D587E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D587E has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 27034166), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
L485F missense gain of function BRAF L485F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L485F confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity and activation of downstream Mek and Erk in cell culture (PMID: 16439621), and in one of two cell lines, L485F increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
I592M missense unknown BRAF I592M lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). I592M has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
G464E missense gain of function BRAF G464E (also reported as G463E) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G464E results in increased Braf kinase activity and activation of MEK and ERK (PMID: 15035987, PMID: 23680146), and in one of two cell lines, increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785).
M517I missense loss of function - predicted BRAF M517I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). M517I has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
R239Q missense unknown BRAF R239Q lies within the phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R239Q has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 29903896), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Jan 2019).
E501G missense loss of function BRAF E501G lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E501G confers a loss of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by inability to activate downstream reporter assays, impaired kinase activity and presence in genetic diseases associated with Ras/Raf/Mek dysfunction (PMID: 26065894, PMID: 16474404, PMID: 16439621).
G69S missense unknown BRAF G69S does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G69S results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
T529M missense unknown BRAF T529M is a gatekeeper mutation that lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 20538618). T529M has been demonstrated to result in resistance to Raf inhibitors in the context of BRAF V600E (PMID: 20538618), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Jun 2018). Y
T599dup duplication gain of function BRAF T599dup (also referred to T599_V600insT) indicates the insertion of the duplicate amino acid, tyrosine (T)-599, in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T599dup confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity and phosphorylation of downstream Mek and Erk, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 21190184).
G596D missense loss of function BRAF G596D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G596D demonstrates decreased Braf kinase activity in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and therefore is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
K601Q missense gain of function BRAF K601Q lies within the activation loop in the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 19206169). K601Q confers a gain of function on Braf, as indicated by increased MEK and ERK phosphorylation, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 19206169, PMID: 29533785).
N486D missense unknown BRAF N486D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N486D results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
R671Q missense no effect - predicted BRAF R671Q lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R671Q has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
N581Y missense unknown BRAF N581Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N581Y has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 19474002, PMID: 26084293), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Nov 2018).
I463T missense unknown BRAF I463T lies within the protein kinase domain of the BRAF protein (UniProt.org). I463T has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 28829677), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2018).
G563D missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G563D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G563D has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
T599K missense unknown BRAF T599K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T599K has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 30603682), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2019).
W450* nonsense loss of function - predicted BRAF W450* results in a premature truncation the Braf protein at amino acid 450 of 766 (UniProt.org). Due to the loss of the protein kinase domain (UniProt.org), R450* is predicted to lead to a loss of Braf protein function.
dec exp none no effect BRAF dec exp indicates decreased expression of the Braf protein and/or mRNA. However, the mechanism causing the decreased expression is unspecified.
E611D missense unknown BRAF E611D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E611D has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15935100), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
L485_P490del deletion gain of function BRAF L485_P490del results in the deletion of six amino acids within the beta-3/alpha-C helix loop in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 26732095, UniProt.org). L485_P490del confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity, phosphorylation of downstream Mek and Erk, and transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 26732095, PMID: 26996308), and is associated with resistance to vemurafenib in cell culture (PMID: 26996308). Y
V681I missense no effect - predicted BRAF V681I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V681I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
R389C missense no effect - predicted BRAF R389C lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R389C has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G104E missense no effect - predicted BRAF G104E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G104E has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
V600dup duplication gain of function BRAF V600dup (also referred to as T599_V600insV) indicates the insertion of the duplicate amino acid, valine (V)-600, in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V600dup confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity and phosphorylation of downstream Mek and Erk, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 21190184).
G478C missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G478C lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G478C demonstrates a lack of Braf kinase activity in cell culture (PMID: 22926515), and therefore is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
P341S missense no effect - predicted BRAF P341S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P341S has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
L597Q missense gain of function BRAF L597Q lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L597Q results in activation of Braf as indicated by increased phosphorylation of Mek and Erk in cell culture (PMID: 22798288) and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
V600K missense gain of function BRAF V600K (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600K confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity, downstream signaling, and the ability to transform cells in vitro (PMID: 15035987, PMID: 29533785).
A728V missense gain of function BRAF A728V (also referred to as A727V) does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A728V results in an intermediate increase in Braf kinase activity compared to wild-type Braf and increased Erk phosphorylation in cell culture (PMID: 15035987).
T599_V600insS insertion unknown BRAF T599_V600insS results in the insertion of a serine (S) in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 599 and 600 (UniProt.org). T599_V600insS has not been characterized in the scientific literature and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2019).
W604del deletion unknown BRAF W604del results in the deletion of one amino acid in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein at amino acid 604 (UniProt.org). W604del has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15513360), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
D594Y missense unknown BRAF D594Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594Y has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 29106415, PMID: 28486044), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V504I missense no effect - predicted BRAF V504I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V504I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels as wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
G421V missense no effect - predicted BRAF G421V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G421V has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
V600R missense gain of function BRAF V600R (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600R confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased Braf kinase activity, downstream signaling, and the ability to transform cells in culture (PMID: 15035987, PMID: 29533785).
Q257R missense gain of function BRAF Q257R lies within the phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger region of the BRAF protein (UniProt.org). Q257R confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity and activation of downstream Mek signaling in cell cuture, and activation of ELK in reporter assays (PMID: 16474404, PMID: 16439621).
L245F missense unknown BRAF L245F lies within the Phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L245F results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V600X missense gain of function - predicted BRAF V600X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the the valine (V) at amino acid 600 by a different amino acid. BRAF V600 mutations are hotspot mutations that often result in increased Braf kinase activity (PMID: 15035987).
S605F missense unknown BRAF S605F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S605F has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
G466E missense unknown BRAF G466E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G466E results in impaired Braf kinase activity, but paradoxically increases Erk signaling through C-raf activation in cell culture and Xenopus embryos (PMID: 15035987), however, induces similar cell proliferation and cell viability as wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
P367S missense unknown BRAF P367S does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P367S results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
P403fs frameshift loss of function - predicted BRAF P403fs results in a change in the amino acid sequence of the Braf protein beginning at aa 403 of 766, likely resulting in premature truncation of the functional protein (UniProt.org). Due to the loss of the protein kinase domain (UniProt.org), P403fs is predicted to lead to a loss of Braf protein function.
G606E missense unknown BRAF G606E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G606E has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 29320312, PMID: 28936923, PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
fusion unknown unknown BRAF fusion indicates a fusion of the BRAF gene, but the fusion partner is unknown.
T529N missense unknown BRAF T529N is a gatekeeper mutation that lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 20538618). T529N has been demonstrated to result in resistance to Raf inhibitors in the context of BRAF V600E (PMID: 20538618), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Jun 2018). Y
H574Q missense gain of function BRAF H574Q lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H574Q confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as indicated by increased Erk phosphorylation in culture and tumor formation in animal models, and confers resistance to Egfr inhibitors in culture (PMID: 27478040). Y
H725Y missense unknown BRAF H725Y does not lie with any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H725Y has not been biochemically characterized, but results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
R271H missense no effect - predicted BRAF R271H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R271H has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G596S missense unknown BRAF G596S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G596S has not been biochemically characterized, but results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V600delinsYM indel gain of function BRAF V600delinsYM results in a deletion of valine (V) at amino acid 600 within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein, combined with the insertion of a tyrosine (Y) and a methionine (M) at the same site (UniProt.org). V600delinsYM results in increased Braf kinase activity, increased downstream signaling, and the ability to transform cells in culture (PMID: 22752848).
Y656D missense loss of function - predicted BRAF Y656D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). Y656D has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
E648Q missense loss of function - predicted BRAF E648Q lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E648Q has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
L711F missense no effect - predicted BRAF L711F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L711F has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G469A missense gain of function BRAF G469A is a hotspot mutation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G469A results in increased Braf kinase activity and downstream activation of Erk, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 19010912, PMID: 12068308, PMID: 29533785).
M53I missense unknown BRAF M53I does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). M53I results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
S602F missense no effect - predicted BRAF S602F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S602F has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
L485W missense unknown BRAF L485W lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L485W results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V600D missense gain of function BRAF V600D (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600D confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity, downstream signaling, and the ability to transform cells in vitro (PMID: 15035987).
K601I missense unknown BRAF K601I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K601I has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 26682952, PMID: 29176861, PMID: 23555633), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
R719S missense no effect - predicted BRAF R719S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). R719S has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
A762E missense unknown BRAF A762E does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A762E has been demonstrated to confer resistance to Egfr inhibitors in culture (PMID: 27478040), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019). Y
A598X missense unknown BRAF A598X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the alanine (A) at amino acid 598 by a different amino acid.
D287H missense loss of function BRAF D287H does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D287H results in impaired Braf kinase activity, but leads to Ras-dependent activation of Erk in cell culture (PMID: 26343582, PMID: 28783719).
D594H missense loss of function - predicted BRAF D594H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594H results in a loss of Braf kinase activity, but leads to Ras-dependent activation of Erk signaling through CRAF (PMID: 28783719), and demonstrates decreased transforming activity compared to wild-type Braf in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
F259L missense no effect - predicted BRAF F259L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). F259L has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
N486_A489delinsK indel unknown BRAF N486_A489delinsK results in a deletion of 4 amino acids in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein from amino acids 486 to 489, combined with the insertion of a lysine (K) at the same site (UniProt.org). N486_A489delinsK has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 29247016), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2019).
S467X missense unknown BRAF S467X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the serine (S) at amino acid 467 by a different amino acid.
V600G missense gain of function BRAF V600G (previously reported as V599G) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600G confers a gain of function to Braf as indicated by increased phosphorylation of MEK and ERK and activation of ELK in culture (PMID: 20735442, PMID: 26744778), and in one of two cell lines, increased cell proliferation and viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
P162S missense no effect - predicted BRAF P162S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P162S has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G469R missense gain of function - predicted BRAF G469R is a hotspot mutation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G469R demonstrates intermediate BRAF kinase activity (PMID: 28783719) and results in constitutive ERK activation in cell culture (PMID: 24920063), and in one of two cell lines leads to increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf protein.
G596fs frameshift loss of function - predicted BRAF G596fs results in a change in the amino acid sequence of the Braf protein beginning at aa 596 of 766, likely resulting in premature truncation of the functional protein (UniProt.org). Due to the disruption of the protein kinase domain (UniProt.org), G596fs is predicted to lead to a loss of Braf protein function.
W619R missense unknown BRAF W619R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). W619R has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 16179870), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
K205Q missense no effect - predicted BRAF K205Q lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K205Q has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
D594E missense loss of function BRAF D594E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594E results in impaired Braf kinase activity, however, results in increased Mek and Erk phosphorylation in the presence of CRAF in cell culture (PMID: 28783719).
V600E missense gain of function BRAF V600E (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600E confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased Braf kinase activity, downstream signaling, and the ability to transform cells in culture (PMID: 15035987, PMID: 29533785).
L64I missense no effect - predicted BRAF L64I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L64I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G469del deletion loss of function BRAF G469del results in the deletion of an amino acid in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein at amino acid 469 (UniProt.org). G469del demonstrates decreased Braf kinase activity, does not activate downstream ERK, and is minimally transforming in cell culture (PMID: 23833300).
K601X missense BRAF K601X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the lysine (K) at amino acid 601 by a different amino acid.
S419Y missense no effect - predicted BRAF S419Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S419Y has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G466V missense loss of function BRAF G466V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G466V results in impaired Braf kinase activity, but paradoxically activates MEK and ERK through transactivation of CRAF in cell culture (PMID: 22649091, PMID: 28783719), and in one of two cell lines, G466V decreased cell proliferation and cell viability as compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
G606V missense unknown BRAF G606V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G606V has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 21825258), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V471F missense loss of function BRAF V471F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V471F results in a loss of Braf kinase activity, however, results in dimerization-dependent activation of Erk signaling and is weakly transforming in cultured cells (PMID: 25348715).
K601_S602delinsNT indel unknown BRAF K601_S602delinsNT results in a deletion of two amino acids in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein from amino acids 601 to 602, combined with the insertion of an asparagine (N) and a threonine (T) at the same site (UniProt.org). K601_S602delinsNT has not been characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2019).
N581X missense unknown BRAF N581X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the asparagine (N) at amino acid 581 by a different amino acid.
K601del deletion unknown BRAF K601del results in the deletion of one amino acid in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein at amino acid 601 (UniProt.org). K601del has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 19152441), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
Q609E missense unknown BRAF Q609E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). Q609E results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
T241P missense unknown BRAF T241P does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T241P is only weakly activating of MEK and ERK and does not induce transformation in cell culture (PMID: 19206169), but in one of two cell lines, T241P did increase cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
K601N missense gain of function BRAF K601N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K601N confers a gain of function on Braf, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of MEK and ERK in cell in culture (PMID: 24434212) and induction of cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
wild-type none no effect Wild-type BRAF indicates that no mutation has been detected within the BRAF gene.
T529I missense unknown BRAF T529I is a gatekeeper mutation that lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 20538618). T529I has been demonstrated to result in resistance to Raf inhibitors in the context of BRAF V600E (PMID: 20538618), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Jun 2018). Y
inact mut unknown loss of function BRAF inact mut indicates that this variant results in a loss of function of the Braf protein. However, the specific amino acid change has not been identified.
G469E missense unknown BRAF G469E is a hotspot mutation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). The functional effect of G469E on Braf is unclear as it has been characterized as having both low Braf kinase activity (PMID: 28783719) and intermediate Braf kinase activity (PMID: 15035987), results in Ras-dependent activation of ERK signaling in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and in one of two cell lines, G469E increased cell proliferation and cell viability as compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
L597V missense gain of function BRAF L597V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L597V results in activation of Braf as indicated by increased phosphorylation of Mek and Erk in cell culture (PMID: 22798288) and and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
P490_Q494del deletion gain of function - predicted BRAF P490_Q494del results in the deletion of five amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the protein kinase domain in the Braf protein from amino acids 490 to 494 (PMID: 26732095). P490_Q494del results in activation of Mek in cell culture (PMID: 26996308), and similar Braf deletions are activating (PMID: 26996308, PMID: 26732095), and therefore P490_Q494del is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf function.
L597X missense unknown BRAF L597X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the leucine (L) at amino acid 597 by a different amino acid.
L597S missense gain of function BRAF L597S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L597S results in activation of Braf as indicated by increased phosphorylation of Mek and Erk in cell culture (PMID: 22798288) and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
N581I missense unknown BRAF N581I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N581I results in low Braf kinase activity and Ras-dependent activation of Erk signaling in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), however, also results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
D594N missense loss of function - predicted BRAF D594N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594N results in impaired Braf kinase activity, but leads to activation of Erk signaling through CRAF in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and demonstrates decreased transforming ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
V504_R506dup duplication gain of function BRAF V504_R506dup (also referred to as R506_K507insVLR) lies within the protein kinase domain (UniProt.org). V504_R506dup confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by stabilization of Braf homodimers and increased downstream Erk phosphorylation in cultured cells (PMID: 23817572), and is associated with increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation in human tumor samples (PMID: 29544532).
K601T missense gain of function - predicted BRAF K601T lies within the activation segment in the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15343278). K601T results in increased Braf kinase activity in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and in one of two cell lines increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf protein.
I592V missense unknown BRAF I592V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). I592V has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 24710085, PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
W604R missense unknown BRAF W604R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). W604R has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 28188106, PMID: 21825258, PMID: 23833300), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
G464R missense gain of function BRAF G464R (also reported as G463R) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G464R results in increased Braf kinase activity, increased downstream Erk signaling (PMID: 15046639), and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
G469L missense unknown BRAF G469L is a hotspot mutation lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G469L has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 24035431, PMID: 26301799, PMID: 26200454), but has not been biochemically characterized, and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V600M missense gain of function - predicted BRAF V600M (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600M results in intermediate Braf kinase activity in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and in one of two cell lines increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf protein.
G469S missense gain of function BRAF G469S is a hotspot mutation within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G469S results in increased Erk phosphorylation (PMID: 27478040) and induces increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785).
A598_T599insV insertion gain of function BRAF A598_T599insV results in the insertion of a valine (V) in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 598 and 599 (UniProt.org). A598_T599insV results in increased Braf kinase activity, increased downstream Mapk and Mek signaling, and the ability to transform cells in culture (PMID: 16501605).
amp none no effect BRAF amplification indicates an increased number of copies of the Braf gene. However, the mechanism causing the increase is unspecified.
L597R missense gain of function BRAF L597R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L597R results in activation of Braf as indicated by increased phosphorylation of Mek and Erk in cell culture (PMID: 22798288, PMID: 26343582), is associated with Erk activation in a patient tumor sample (PMID: 23715574), and in one of two cell lines, increased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
G606A missense unknown BRAF G606A lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G606A has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 21825258), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
S467A missense gain of function BRAF S467A lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S467A confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity and activation of downstream Mek signaling (PMID: 23680146, PMID: 16439621).
G466R missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G466R (previously reported as G465R) lies within the glycine-rich loop in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 14681681). G466R results in impaired Braf kinase activity, but activates Erk signaling in cell culture (PMID: 15046639), and in one of two cell lines, G466R decreased cell proliferation and cell viability compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
L613F missense unknown BRAF L613F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L613F results in increased transformation ability as compared to wild-type Braf, in one of two cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
P348T missense no effect - predicted BRAF P348T lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P348T has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
G258V missense unknown BRAF G258V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G258V has not been biochemically characterized, but results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
H585Y missense loss of function - predicted BRAF H585Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H585Y has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
T470K missense no effect - predicted BRAF T470K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T470K has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
A598_T599insARC insertion gain of function - predicted BRAF A598_T599insARC results in the insertion of 3 amino acids in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 598 and 599 (UniProt.org). BRAF A598_T599insARC has not been characterized, however other insertions between A598 and T599 are activating thus, A598_T599insARC is predicted to lead to a gain of Braf protein function (PMID: 16501605).
V226L missense unknown BRAF V226L lies within the Ras-binding domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V226L has not been characterized in the scientific literature and therefore, its effect on Braf protein is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2018).
F595L missense unknown BRAF F595L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). F595L has been demonstrated to result in intermediate Braf kinase activity and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 15035987, PMID: 26582644, PMID: 29533785), and works cooperatively with oncogenic Ras to activate MEK/ERK signaling (PMID: 26582644), however, has also been demonstrated to have low Braf kinase activity (PMID: 28783719), and therefore its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
V590I missense no effect - predicted BRAF V590I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V590I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
V600Q missense unknown BRAF V600Q (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment and the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987, UniProt.org). V600Q has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 28848703), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
F247L missense gain of function BRAF F247L lies within the phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger region of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). F247L confers a gain of function to Braf, as indicated by activation of downstream MAPK signaling and is transforming in cultured cells (PMID: 28512244, PMID: 29533785).
mutant unknown unknown BRAF mutant indicates an unspecified mutation in the BRAF gene.
R509H missense loss of function BRAF R509H lies within the dimerization interface region of the Braf protein (PMID: 22510884). R509H confers a loss of function to the Braf protein, as demonstrated by decreased Braf dimerization and reduced ability to activate downstream Mek signaling in in vitro assays (PMID: 22510884).
P141L missense no effect - predicted BRAF P141L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P141L has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
S364L missense no effect - predicted BRAF S364L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S364L has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
N581D missense no effect - predicted BRAF N581D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N581D results in transactivation of ELK at comparable levels to wild-type Braf in a reporter assay (PMID: 16474404), and is therefore predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
N20T missense unknown BRAF N20T does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N20T has not been characterized in the scientific literature and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V600A missense no effect - predicted BRAF V600A (previously reported as V599) lies within the activation segment of the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15035987). V600A results in phosphorylated Mek protein levels similar to wild-type Braf and therefore, is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function (PMID: 26744778).
T401I missense no effect - predicted BRAF T401I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). T401I has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
act mut unknown gain of function BRAF act mut indicates that this variant results in a gain of function in the Braf protein. However, the specific amino acid change has not been identified.
I463S missense gain of function BRAF I463S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). I463S results in an intermediate increase in Braf kinase activity compared to wild-type Braf and increased Erk activation in cell culture (PMID: 15035987).
L678I missense loss of function - predicted BRAF L678I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L678I has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
K601E missense gain of function BRAF K601E lies within the activation segment in the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 15343278). K601E results in increased Braf kinase activity and downstream activation of MEK and ERK in cell culture (PMID: 22798288, PMID: 28783719) and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in culture (PMID: 29533785).
D594X missense unknown BRAF D594X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the aspartic acid (D) at amino acid 594 by a different amino acid.
E586X missense unknown BRAF E586X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the glutamic acid (E) at amino acid 586 by a different amino acid.
V459L missense unknown BRAF V459L lies with protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V459L results in impaired Braf kinase activity, leads to Ras-dependent activation of Erk in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), but in two different cell lines, induced similar cell proliferation and cell viability as wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
N581K missense loss of function - predicted BRAF N581K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). N581K has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
L584F missense unknown BRAF L584F lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L584F results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
rearrange unknown unknown BRAF rearrangement indicates an unspecified rearrangement of the BRAF gene.
P367X missense unknown BRAF P367X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the proline (P) at amino acid 367 by a different amino acid.
K483M missense unknown BRAF K483M (also reported as K482M) lies within an ATP binding site in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K483M results in a loss of Braf kinase activity, however, has been demonstrated to both activate MEK through CRAF (PMID: 16508002, PMID: 23533272), and lack ability to activate ERK and CRAF in cell culture and in Xenopus (PMID: 15035987), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
W604G missense unknown BRAF W604G lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). W604G has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 29769567, PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
E228V missense no effect - predicted BRAF E228V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E228V has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
P367L missense unknown BRAF P367L does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P367L has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 26317466), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2019).
H608R missense unknown BRAF H608R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H608R has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
I582M missense unknown BRAF I582M lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). I582M has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 30268455, PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
K499E missense gain of function BRAF K499E lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K499E confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased Braf kinase activity and downstream signaling, activation of ELK-dependent signaling in reporter assays, and foci formation in cultured cells (PMID: 16474404, PMID: 18413255, PMID: 26065894).
T599_V600insTT insertion gain of function BRAF T599_V600insTT results in the insertion of two threonines (T) in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 599 and 600 (UniProt.org). T599_V600insTT results in increased Braf kinase activity in an in vitro assay, and increased downstream Mek/Erk signaling in culture (PMID: 21190184).
I463X missense unknown BRAF I463X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the isoleucine (I) at amino acid 463 by a different amino acid.
V600E/K missense gain of function BRAF V600E/K indicates a mutation that results in the replacement of the valine (V) at amino acid 600 of the Braf protein by either a glutamate (E) or lysine (K). V600E/K mutations are hotspot mutations in Braf that result in increased Braf kinase activity (PMID: 15035987).
Y538H missense unknown BRAF Y538H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). Y538H has not been characterized in the scientific literature and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V471I missense unknown BRAF V471I lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). V471I has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 28188106, PMID: 23103869), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
V600fs frameshift loss of function - predicted BRAF V600fs results in a change in the amino acid sequence of the Braf protein beginning at aa 600 of 766, likely resulting in premature truncation of the functional protein (UniProt.org). Due to the disruption of the protein kinase domain, V600fs is predicted to lead to a loss of Braf protein function (UniProt.org).
P407L missense no effect - predicted BRAF P407L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P407L has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
D594V missense loss of function BRAF D594V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594V results in impaired Braf kinase activity, and decreased activation of Erk, Mek, and CRAF in cell culture (PMID: 28947956, PMID: 15035987), and has decreased transforming ability in one of two cell lines compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785).
V600_K601delinsE indel gain of function BRAF V600_K601delinsE results in the deletion of two amino acids formation of a new glutamic acid (E) residue in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 600 and 601 (UniProt.org, PMID: 22563563). V600_K601delinsE leads to activation of downstream Mek and Erk signaling, increased colony formation (PMID: 17297294), and induces cell proliferation and cell viability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785).
Y472C missense unknown BRAF Y472C lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org), Y472C results in impaired Braf kinase activity, however, paradoxically activates Mek and Erk through transactivation of CRAF (PMID: 22649091), but in two different cell lines, Y472C induced similar cell proliferation and cell viability as wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785).
H568D missense loss of function - predicted BRAF H568D lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H568D results in a loss of MEK phosphorylation in cell culture similar to Braf kinase-dead variants (PMID: 29666306), and therefore, is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
G596R missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G596R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein, within the DFG motif (PMID: 19735675). G596R results in impaired Braf kinase activity and decreased Mek and Erk phosphorylation, including in the presence of BRAF V600E, is not transforming in culture and does not promote tumor formation in mouse models, but results in activation of Erk in the presence of CRAF (PMID: 19735675, PMID: 28783719), however, in another study demonstrates similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and is predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
G469X missense unknown BRAF G469X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the glycine (G) at amino acid 469 by a different amino acid.
K698R missense no effect - predicted BRAF K698R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). K698R has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
S467L missense unknown BRAF S467L lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). S467L results in impaired Braf kinase activity, but leads to Ras-dependent activation of Erk in cell culture (PMID: 28783719), and in two different cell lines, S467L increased cell proliferation and cell viability as compared to wild-type Braf (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
L485_Q494del deletion gain of function - predicted BRAF L485_Q494del results in the deletion of ten amino acids within the beta-3/alpha-C helix loop in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 26732095, UniProt.org). L485_Q494del has not been characterized, however, is predicted to result in a gain of function due to other characterized BRAF deletions in the same region (PMID: 26732095).
Q257X missense unknown BRAF Q257X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the glutamine (Q) at amino acid 257 by a different amino acid.
H574N missense no effect - predicted BRAF H574N lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). H574N results in Erk phosphorylation at similar levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 27478040), and is therefore predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
P731S missense unknown BRAF P731S does not lie within any known functional domains of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). P731S results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
G596V missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G596V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G596V results in impaired Braf kinase activity and does not activate downstream MEK and ERK in cell culture (PMID: 16439621), but leads to activation of ERK in zebrafish models (PMID: 19376813), and is therefore predicted to lead to a loss of Braf protein function.
D594A missense loss of function BRAF D594A lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D594A results in a lack of Braf kinase activity (PMID: 20141835, PMID: 20978199, PMID: 28783719), promotes aneupolidy (PMID: 20978199), and in one of two cell lines demonstrated decreased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), but leads to activation of Mek and Erk through cooperation with activated RAS and transactivation of CRAF in cell culture and mouse models (PMID: 20141835, PMID: 20978199, PMID: 28783719).
E695K missense unknown BRAF E695K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E695K has not been biochemically characterized, but results in increased transformation ability compared to wild-type Braf in one of two different cell lines in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
T599X missense unknown BRAF T599X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the threonine (T) at amino acid 599 by a different amino acid.
G464V missense gain of function BRAF G464V (also reported as G463V) lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G464V results in increased Braf kinase activity and increased downstream Mek and Erk activation (PMID: 12068308, PMID: 26343582), and in one of two cell lines, increased cell proliferation and viability compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785).
G606W missense loss of function - predicted BRAF G606W lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). G606W has not been biochemically characterized, but demonstrates decreased transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 29533785), and is therefore predicted to confer a loss of function to the Braf protein.
A598S missense unknown BRAF A598S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A598S has not been characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
D587A missense unknown BRAF D587A lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D587A has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 14500346), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
L597P missense unknown BRAF L597P lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). L597P has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 30268455, PMID: 24714776), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
N486_P490del deletion gain of function BRAF N486_P490del results in the deletion of five amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the kinase domain (PMID: 26732095). N486_P490del confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as indicated by activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and increased cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 26732095).
E501K missense unknown BRAF E501K lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E501K results in ELK transactivation at comparable levels to wild-type Braf in a reporter assay (PMID: 16474404), however, also demonstrates decreased Braf kinase activity in culture (PMID: 17603482), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown.
A598V missense gain of function - predicted BRAF A598V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). A598V is associated with increased activation of Braf and downstream Mek and Erk in human tumor samples (PMID: 19200582), and is therefore predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf protein.
G464X missense unknown BRAF G464X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the glycine (G) at amino acid 464 by a different amino acid.
E275K missense unknown BRAF E275K lies within the phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger region of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). E275K results in decreased activation of Mek and Erk (PMID: 19206169), but also demonstrates similar cell proliferation and viability as compared to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
F595S missense unknown BRAF F595S lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). F595S has been identified in sequencing studies (PMID: 15331929), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Braf protein function is unknown (PubMed, Mar 2019).
D594_T599dup duplication gain of function BRAF D594_T599dup (also referred to as T599_V600insDFGLAT) results in the insertion of six amino acids in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 599 and 600 (UniProt.org).BRAF D594_T599dup results in increased colony formation and downstream Mek and Erk activation in cultured cells (PMID: 17297294).
T599R missense gain of function BRAF T599R lies within the activation loop in the kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 19206169). T599R confers a gain of function on Braf, as indicated by increased MEK and ERK phosphorylation, and is transforming in cell culture (PMID: 19206169, PMID: 29533785).
D380H missense no effect - predicted BRAF D380H lies within the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (UniProt.org). D380H has not been biochemically characterized, but results in similar cell proliferation and viability levels to wild-type Braf in culture (PMID: 29533785), and therefore is predicted to have no effect on Braf protein function.
T599_V600insEAT insertion gain of function - predicted BRAF T599_V600insEAT results in the insertion of 3 amino acids in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein between amino acids 599 and 600 (UniProt.org). T599_V600insEAT has not been characterized, however other insertions between T599 and V600 are activating thus, T599_V600insEAT is predicted to lead to a gain of Braf protein function (PMID: 16501605, PMID: 17297294, PMID: 21190184).
F595X missense unknown BRAF F595X indicates any Braf missense mutation that results in replacement of the phenylalanine (F) at amino acid 595 by a different amino acid.
Molecular Profile Protein Effect Treatment Approaches
BRAF G466X unknown
BRAF G466A unknown
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F
BRAF S363F unknown
BRAF R603* loss of function - predicted
BRAF A712T no effect - predicted
BRAF E586K gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L485_P490delinsY gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G596X unknown
BRAF V600L unknown BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF H269Y unknown
BRAF P676S no effect - predicted
BRAF L485X unknown
BRAF P731T unknown
BRAF Q609H no effect - predicted
APC Q1429fs BRAF N581S ERBB2 L755S
BRAF N581S unknown
BRAF Q262R unknown
BRAF T599A loss of function
BRAF G615R loss of function - predicted
BRAF L514V gain of function - predicted
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E
BRAF T488_Q493delinsK gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF S637* loss of function - predicted
BRAF A762V no effect - predicted
BRAF S605N unknown
BRAF W531C unknown
BRAF V600E BRAF L505H
BRAF L505H gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF N49I no effect - predicted
BRAF R462I unknown
BRAF R462X unknown
BRAF G469V NRAS Q61K
BRAF G469V gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF T599_V600insETT gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L485_P490delinsF gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF F468C gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF R509G no effect - predicted
BRAF R347* loss of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF V487_P492delinsA gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF T241X unknown
BRAF G596C loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF T488_P492del gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF A320T no effect - predicted
BRAF F294L no effect - predicted
BRAF K483E unknown
BRAF L485Y unknown
BRAF A598T loss of function - predicted
BRAF S605G unknown
BRAF L618F loss of function - predicted
BRAF D594G NRAS G12D
BRAF D594G unknown
BRAF D587G unknown
BRAF K499N unknown
BRAF R462K no effect - predicted
BRAF Q257H unknown
BRAF V639I no effect - predicted
BRAF R444W unknown
BRAF R188T no effect - predicted
BRAF P367R gain of function
BRAF N581T no effect - predicted
BRAF T599I gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF P453T unknown
BRAF S607F loss of function - predicted
BRAF D587E unknown
BRAF L485F gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF I592M unknown
BRAF G464E KRAS G12D
BRAF G464E gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF M517I loss of function - predicted
BRAF R239Q unknown
BRAF L597S BRAF R239Q
BRAF E501G loss of function
BRAF G69S unknown
BRAF T529M unknown
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M
BRAF T599dup gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G596D loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF K601Q gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF N486D unknown
BRAF R671Q no effect - predicted
BRAF N581Y unknown
BRAF I463T unknown
BRAF G563D loss of function - predicted
BRAF T599K unknown
BRAF W450* loss of function - predicted
BRAF dec exp no effect
BRAF dec exp KRAS G12C
BRAF E611D unknown
BRAF L485_P490del gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF V681I no effect - predicted
BRAF R389C no effect - predicted
BRAF G104E no effect - predicted
BRAF V600dup gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G478C loss of function - predicted
BRAF P341S no effect - predicted
BRAF L597Q gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF V600K gain of function BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K
BRAF A728V gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF T599_V600insS unknown
BRAF W604del unknown
BRAF D594Y unknown MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF V504I no effect - predicted
BRAF G421V no effect - predicted
BRAF V600R gain of function BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF Q257R gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L245F unknown
BRAF V600X MAP2K1 V60E NRAS T58I NRAS Q61R
BRAF V600X gain of function - predicted BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF amp BRAF V600X NRAS Q61K
AKT1 Q79K BRAF V600X PTEN pos
BRAF V600X KRAS mut
BRAF V600X PTEN H93D
BRAF V600X PTEN neg
AKT1 E17K BRAF V600X PTEN pos
BRAF S605F unknown
BRAF G466E HRAS Q61K
BRAF G466E unknown
BRAF P367S unknown
BRAF P403fs loss of function - predicted
BRAF G606E unknown
BRAF fusion unknown
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N
BRAF T529N unknown
BRAF H574Q gain of function
BRAF H725Y unknown
BRAF R271H no effect - predicted
BRAF G596S unknown
BRAF V600delinsYM gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF Y656D loss of function - predicted
BRAF E648Q loss of function - predicted
BRAF L711F no effect - predicted
BRAF G469A gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF M53I unknown
BRAF S602F no effect - predicted
BRAF L485W unknown
BRAF V600D NRAS dec exp
BRAF V600D gain of function BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF V600D PTEN loss
BRAF K601I unknown MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF R719S no effect - predicted
BRAF A762E unknown
BRAF A598X unknown
BRAF D287H loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF D594H loss of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF F259L no effect - predicted
BRAF N486_A489delinsK unknown
BRAF S467X unknown
BRAF V600G gain of function BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF P162S no effect - predicted
BRAF G469R NRAS Q61K
BRAF G469R gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G596fs loss of function - predicted
BRAF W619R unknown
BRAF K205Q no effect - predicted
BRAF D594E loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P162S
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S
BRAF V600E PTEN loss
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124L
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 I111N
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124S
BRAF V600E PTEN loss TP53 wild-type
BRAF V600E KRAS G12D
BRAF V600E ERBB2 pos KRAS A146V
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D
BRAF V600E ERBB2 over exp KRAS A146V
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 E203K
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T
BRAF V600E gain of function BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF V600E CDKN2A mut
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 Q56P
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K
MAP2K1 Q56P BRAF V600E
BRAF V600E CSF1R positive
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V60E
BRAF amp BRAF V600E
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124Q
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K57E
BRAF V600E KRAS mutant
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 G128V
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K57T
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D
BRAF V600E TP53 Q192K
BRAF V600E KRAS amp
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T KRAS A146V
BRAF V600E NRAS G12V
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I
BRAF V600E PTEN wild-type
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 H119P
BRAF V600E KRAS wild-type
BRAF V600E PTEN mut
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 I103N
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S
BRAF L64I no effect - predicted
BRAF G469del loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF K601X
BRAF S419Y no effect - predicted
BRAF G466V loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G466V NRAS Q61K
BRAF G606V unknown
BRAF V471F loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF K601_S602delinsNT unknown
BRAF N581X unknown
BRAF K601del unknown
BRAF Q609E unknown
BRAF T241P unknown
BRAF K601N gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF wild-type no effect
BRAF wild-type NRAS mutant
BRAF wild-type NRAS wild-type
BRAF wild-type KRAS G12C
BRAF wild-type KRAS wild-type NRAS wild-type
BRAF wild-type KRAS G13D
BRAF wild-type KRAS Q61K
BRAF wild-type KRAS G12D
BRAF wild-type KRAS G12V
BRAF wild-type NRAS Q61K
BRAF wild-type KRAS wild-type
NRAS BRAF wild-type
AKT1 E17K KRAS wild-type BRAF wild-type
BRAF wild-type KIT positive
BRAF T529I unknown
BRAF inact mut loss of function
BRAF G469E unknown
BRAF L597V gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L597V NRAS Q61K
BRAF P490_Q494del gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L597X unknown
BRAF L597S gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF N581I unknown
BRAF D594N loss of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF V504_R506dup gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF K601T gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF I592V unknown
BRAF W604R unknown
BRAF G464R gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G469L unknown MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF V600M gain of function - predicted BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF G469S gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF A598_T599insV gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF amp no effect
BRAF L597R gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G606A unknown
BRAF S467A gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G466R loss of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L613F unknown
BRAF P348T no effect - predicted
BRAF G258V unknown
BRAF H585Y loss of function - predicted
BRAF T470K no effect - predicted
BRAF A598_T599insARC gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF V226L unknown
BRAF F595L unknown MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF V590I no effect - predicted
BRAF V600Q unknown BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF F247L gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF mut PTEN loss
BRAF mut NRAS wild-type
BRAF mut KRAS G12V
BRAF mut PTEN wild-type
BRAF mut TP53 mut
BRAF mut PTPN11 dec exp
BRAF mut PTEN inact mut
BRAF mut PTEN mut
BRAF mut KRAS mut CDKN2A mut
BRAF mutant unknown
BRAF mutant IDH1 wild-type
BRAF mut + TP53 wild-type
BRAF mut STAG2 dec exp
BRAF mut KRAS mut
BRAF mut RB1 loss
BRAF mut NRAS mut
BRAF R509H loss of function
BRAF P141L no effect - predicted
BRAF S364L no effect - predicted
BRAF N581D no effect - predicted
BRAF N20T unknown
BRAF V600A no effect - predicted
BRAF T401I no effect - predicted
BRAF act mut gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF I463S gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF L678I loss of function - predicted
BRAF K601E gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF D594X unknown
BRAF E586X unknown
BRAF V459L unknown
BRAF N581K loss of function - predicted
BRAF L584F unknown
BRAF rearrange unknown
BRAF P367X unknown
BRAF K483M unknown
BRAF W604G unknown
BRAF E228V no effect - predicted
BRAF P367L unknown
BRAF H608R unknown
BRAF I582M unknown
BRAF K499E gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF T599_V600insTT gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF I463X unknown
BRAF V600E/K PTEN loss
BRAF V600E/K gain of function BRAF Inhibitor MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor RAF Inhibitor (Pan)
BRAF Y538H unknown
BRAF V471I unknown
BRAF V600fs loss of function - predicted
BRAF P407L no effect - predicted
BRAF D594V loss of function
BRAF V600_K601delinsE gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF Y472C unknown
BRAF H568D loss of function - predicted
BRAF G596R loss of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G596R NRAS Q61K
BRAF G596R PTPN11 E76K
BRAF G469X unknown
BRAF K698R no effect - predicted
BRAF S467L unknown
BRAF L485_Q494del gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF Q257X unknown
BRAF H574N no effect - predicted
BRAF P731S unknown
BRAF G596V loss of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G596V NRAS G13R
BRAF D594A loss of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor
BRAF E695K unknown
BRAF T599X unknown
BRAF G464V KRAS G13D
BRAF G464V gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G606W loss of function - predicted
BRAF A598S unknown
BRAF D587A unknown
BRAF L597P unknown MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF N486_P490del gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF E501K unknown
BRAF A598V gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF G464X unknown
BRAF E275K unknown
BRAF F595S unknown
BRAF D594_T599dup gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF T599R gain of function MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF D380H no effect - predicted
BRAF T599_V600insEAT gain of function - predicted MEK inhibitor (Pan) MEK1 Inhibitor MEK2 Inhibitor LY3009120
BRAF F595X unknown
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Binimetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mektovi (binimetinib) inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Braftovi (encorafenib) inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Cobimetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Cotellic (cobimetinib) inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF K601E BRAF S363F melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Braftovi (encorafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF K601E, as well as BRAF S363F, in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF L485_P490delinsY non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line harboring BRAF L485_P490delinsY was sensitive to LY3009120 in both culture and xenograft models, resulting in significant tumor regression and inhibition of MEK and ERK phosphorylation (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF L485_P490delinsY non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line harboring BRAF L485_P490delinsY was sensitive to Mekinist (trametinib), resulting in cell growth inhibition (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF L485_P490delinsY non-small cell lung carcinoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line harboring BRAF L485_P490delinsY was resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF P731T Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in objective response in only 4% (1/23) of patient with advanced solid tumors harboring non-V600 BRAF mutations, 1 of the non-responding patients harbored BRAF P731T (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
APC Q1429fs BRAF N581S ERBB2 L755S rectum adenocarcinoma no benefit Fluorouracil + Leucovorin + Trastuzumab Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a rectal adenocarcinoma patient harboring APC Q1429fs, BRAF N581S, and ERBB2 L755S did not respond to Herceptin (trastuzumab) treatment in combination with Fluorouracil and Wellcovorin (leucovorin) (PMID: 27626067). 27626067
BRAF N581S lung adenocarcinoma predicted - sensitive PF3644022 + PF-477736 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 and MK2 inhibitor PF3644022 combination treatment resulted in significant apoptosis in primary tumor cells isolated from a lung adenocarcinoma patient harboring BRAF N581S in culture (PMID: 26140595). 26140595
BRAF N581S Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in objective response in only 4% (1/23) of patient with advanced solid tumors harboring non-V600 BRAF mutations, 2 of the non-responding patients harbored BRAF N581S (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF L514V breast cancer resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) did not inhibit Erk and Mek signaling in breast cancer cells expressing BRAF L514V in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E demonstrated decreased response to Mekinist (trametinib)-induced inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation compared to cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma predicted - sensitive BGB3290 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB3290 resulted in similar inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation in melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E and cells expressing BRAF V600E alone in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma predicted - sensitive BGB3245 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB3245 resulted in similar inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation in melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E and cells expressing BRAF V600E alone in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E demonstrated decreased response to TAK-632-induced inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation compared to cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E demonstrated decreased response to PLX8394-induced inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation compared to cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E demonstrated decreased response to Tafinlar (dabrafenib)-induced inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation compared to cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E ganglioglioma resistant Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a pediatric patient with anaplastic ganglioglioma harboring BRAF V600E progressed after initial response to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) treatment, and was found to have acquired a BRAF L514V in cis with BRAF V600E, which conferred dabrafenib resistance in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E demonstrated decreased response to Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-induced inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation compared to cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF L514V BRAF V600E melanoma predicted - sensitive SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, SCH772984 resulted in similar inhibition of Erk phosphorylation and colony formation in melanoma cells expressing BRAF L514V in cis with V600E and cells expressing BRAF V600E alone in culture (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF V600E BRAF L505H melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a melanoma patient harboring BRAF V600E treated with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) subsequently demonstrated resistance likely due to the secondary resistance mutation, BRAF L505H (PMID: 25515853). 25515853
BRAF L505H melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells expressing BRAF L505H were resistant to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) (PMID: 24283590). 24283590
BRAF G469V NRAS Q61K melanoma no benefit Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) treatment did not result in significant growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G469V and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469V NRAS Q61K melanoma predicted - resistant Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased proliferation compared to Mekinist (trametinib) alone in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G469V and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469V NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Braftovi (encorafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G469V and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469V NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, LY3009120 inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G469V and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469V NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Braftovi (encorafenib) to treatment with Mektovi (binimetinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G469V and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469V Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) did not inhibit MEK and ERK activation in transformed cells over expressing the constitutively dimerized BRAF G469V (PMID: 26343582). 26343582
BRAF G469V non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Sorafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a patient with synchronous BRAF wild-type hepatocellular carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer harboring BRAF G469V demonstrated a partial response in primary lung lesions and complete response in the lung metastasis following treatment with Nexavar (sorafenib) (PMID: 27388325). 27388325
BRAF G469V melanoma no benefit Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Braftovi (encorafenib) did not inhibit ERK phosphorylation or proliferation of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G469V (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF V487_P492delinsA pancreatic cancer resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a human pancreatic cancer cell line harboring BRAF V487_P492delinsA was resistant to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in both culture and xenograft models (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF V487_P492delinsA pancreatic cancer sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a pancreatic cancer cell line harboring BRAF V487_P492delinsA was sensitive to Mekinist (trametinib) in culture, resulting in cell growth inhibition (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF V487_P492delinsA pancreatic cancer resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a pancreatic cancer cell line harboring BRAF V487_P492delinsA was resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF V487_P492delinsA pancreatic cancer sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a pancreatic cancer cell line harboring BRAF V487_P492delinsA were sensitive to LY3009120 in culture and in xenograft models, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth and partial tumor regression (PMID: 26732095). 26732095
BRAF L485Y non-small cell lung carcinoma resistant GDC0879 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring BRAF L485Y were resistant to GDC0879 induced growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 19276360). 19276360
BRAF D594G NRAS G12D melanoma decreased response PLX7904 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring both BRAF D594G and NRAS G12D demonstrated decreased sensitivity to PLX7904 in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF D594G NRAS G12D melanoma decreased response Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring both BRAF D594G and NRAS G12D demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF D594G NRAS G12D melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring both BRAF D594G and NRAS G12D demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF D594G NRAS G12D melanoma sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring both BRAF D594G and NRAS G12D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF D594G NRAS G12D melanoma sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, AZ628 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring both BRAF D594G and NRAS G12D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF D594G melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) reduced ERK signaling and inhibited proliferation of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF D594G in culture (PMID: 28783719). 28783719
BRAF G464E KRAS G12D melanoma predicted - resistant Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased proliferation compared to Mekinist (trametinib) alone in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G464E and KRAS G12D in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G464E KRAS G12D melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Braftovi (encorafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G464E and KRAS G12D in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G464E Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) did not inhibit MEK and ERK activation in transformed cells over expressing the constitutively dimerized BRAF G464E (PMID: 26343582). 26343582
BRAF L597S BRAF R239Q melanoma sensitive Binimetinib Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mektovi (binimetinib) inhibited growth of patient-derived melanoma cells harboring BRAF L597S, as well as BRAF R239Q, in culture, and induced tumor shrinkage in 25% (3/12) of tumors and delayed tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF L597S BRAF R239Q melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a patient-derived melanoma cell line harboring BRAF L597S, as well as well as BRAF R239Q, in culture, and resulted in tumor shrinkage in 100% (13/13) of subcutaneous tumors, and decreased growth of intracranial tumors in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF L597S BRAF R239Q melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + Encorafenib Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Braftovi (encorafenib) to treatment with Mektovi (binimetinib) increased growth inhibition in patient-derived melanoma cells harboring BRAF L597S, as well as BRAF R239Q, in culture, and resulted in tumor shrinkage in 67% of tumors, increased inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, and increased tumor growth delay compared to either agent alone in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF L597S BRAF R239Q melanoma sensitive Encorafenib Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Braftovi (encorafenib) inhibited ERK activation and proliferation of patient-derived melanoma cells harboring BRAF L597S, as well as BRAF R239Q, in culture, and delayed tumor growth and induced shrinkage in 8% (1/12) of tumors in a melanoma patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Nexavar (sorafenib) inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529M to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529M were insensitive to SB590885-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529M in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529M were insensitive to PLX4720-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529M Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF265 inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529M to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF N581Y colon cancer resistant GDC0879 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colon cancer cells harboring BRAF N581Y were resistant to GDC0879 induced growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 19276360). 19276360
BRAF dec exp KRAS G12C lung cancer sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) treatment demonstrated enhanced growth inhibition and sustained inhibition of Erk signaling in lung cancer cells harboring KRAS G12C with decreased Braf expression through shRNA knockdown in culture (PMID: 27338794). 27338794
BRAF L597Q Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in objective response in only 4% (1/23) of patient with advanced solid tumors harboring non-V600 BRAF mutations, 1 of the non-responding patients harbored BRAF L597Q (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF L597Q Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) did not inhibit MEK and ERK activation in transformed cells over expressing the constitutively dimerized BRAF L597Q (PMID: 26343582). 26343582
BRAF L597Q lung cancer sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (ulixertinib) resulted in a partial response in a lung cancer patient harboring BRAF L597Q (PMID: 29247021). 29247021
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive Trametinib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (METRIC) that supported FDA approval, Mekinist (trametinib) treatment, as compared to Deticine (dacarbazine) or Taxol (paclitaxel) treatment, resulted in improved progression-free survival of 4.8 months versus 1.5 months and an overall six month survival rate of 81% versus 67% in patients with BRAF V600E/K-positive metastatic melanoma (PMID: 22663011; NCT01245062). 22663011
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib) therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients with unresectable or metastatic disease harboring BRAF V600 activating mutations, such as BRAF V600K, in cases where BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy is contraindicated (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Omipalisib (GSK2126458) inhibited the growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (coBRIM) that supported FDA approval, treatment with the combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Cotellic (cobimetinib) resulted in an improved progression-free survival of 12.3 months, compared to 7.2 months with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) plus placebo, among patients with BRAF V600-mutated metastatic melanoma, which included patients identified to harbor BRAF V600E or BRAF V600K (PMID: 27480103; NCT01689519). 27480103
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients harboring a BRAF V600 activating mutation, such as BRAF V600K, as adjuvant therapy for stage III disease and as systemic therapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic disease (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (COMBI-v) that supported FDA approval, the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in an improved overall survival rate at 12 months (72% vs 65%, HR=0.69, p=0.005), median progression-free survival (11.4 vs 7.3 months, HR=0.56, p<0.001), and objective response rate (64% vs 51%, p<0.001) compared to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in melanoma patients harboring BRAF V600E or V600K (PMID: 25399551; NCT01597908). 25399551
BRAF V600K melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients with unresectable or metastatic disease harboring BRAF V600 activating mutations, such as BRAF V600K, in cases where BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy is contraindicated (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600K melanoma predicted - sensitive Nivolumab Clinical Study Actionable In a retrospective analysis, patients with melanoma harboring BRAF V600K (n=19) had increased tumor mutational burden and greater response rates (53% vs. 29%, p=0.059), progression-free survival (19 vs. 2.7 months, p=0.049), and overall survival (20.4 vs. 11.7 months, p=0.081) relative to patients with BRAF V600E (n=84) when treated with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) (n=17 and 62 for BRAF V600K and V600E, respectively) or Opdivo (nivolumab) (n=2 and 22 for BRAF V600K and V600E, respectively) (PMID: 30630828). 30630828
BRAF V600K melanoma predicted - sensitive Pembrolizumab Clinical Study Actionable In a retrospective analysis, patients with melanoma harboring BRAF V600K (n=19) had increased tumor mutational burden and greater response rates (53% vs. 29%, p=0.059), progression-free survival (19 vs. 2.7 months, p=0.049), and overall survival (20.4 vs. 11.7 months, p=0.081) relative to patients with BRAF V600E (n=84) when treated with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) (n=17 and 62 for BRAF V600K and V600E, respectively) or Opdivo (nivolumab) (n=2 and 22 for BRAF V600K and V600E, respectively) (PMID: 30630828). 30630828
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124Q demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma sensitive VX-11e Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, VX-11e inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124Q in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124Q in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L melanoma sensitive VX-11e Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, VX-11e inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124L in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124L demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K MAP2K1 P124L melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited ERK signaling and reduced growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600K and MAP2K1 P124L in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K and NRAS Q61K were 3-7 fold less sensitive to growth inhibition by Mekinist (trametinib) than parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600K in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib + GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Omipalisib (GSK2126458) inhibited the growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K and NRAS Q61K in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K and NRAS Q61K were resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600K NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600K and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600R melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600R in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600R melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a melanoma patient harboring BRAF V600R treated with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) demonstrated a reduction in lesion size after 2.5 months and at 5 months, stable disease, however, after 7 months progression ensued (PMID: 27255157). 27255157
BRAF V600R melanoma sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, AZ628 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600R in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600R melanoma sensitive PLX7904 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX7904 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600R in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600R melanoma sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600R in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600R melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600R in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600X MAP2K1 V60E NRAS T58I NRAS Q61R melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical study, a melanoma patient harboring a BRAF V600 mutation developed resistant mutations, MAP2K1 V60E, NRAS T58I, and NRAS Q61R, after 18 weeks of treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Phase III Actionable In a Phase III trial, combination treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Cotellic (cobimetinib) resulted in an improved progression-free survival of 12.3 months compared to 7.2 months with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) alone among patients with BRAF V600-mutated metastatic melanoma (PMID: 27480103; NCT01689519). 27480103
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Cotellic (cobimetinib) combination therapy is included in melanoma guidelines for patients with metastatic or unresectable disease harboring a BRAF V600 activating mutation (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600X colorectal cancer no benefit Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial, treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in colorectal cancer patients with BRAF V600 mutations did not result in clinical benefit, with no patients achieving response, and 50% (5/10) demonstrating progressive disease (PMID: 26287849). 26287849
BRAF V600X thyroid cancer predicted - sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial, treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in an overall response rate of 29% (2/7), with 1 complete response and 1 partial response, in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer patients with BRAF V600 mutations (PMID: 26287849). 26287849
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive BKM120 + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Buparlisib (BKM120) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib) therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients with unresectable or metastatic disease harboring BRAF V600 activating mutations, in cases where BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy is contraindicated (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase I/II clinical trial, patients with BRAF V600 mutant melanoma (n=78) treated with the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) had a median overall survival of greater than 2 years (PMID: 26811525). 26811525
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients harboring a BRAF V600 activating mutation, as adjuvant treatment for patients with Stage III disease, or as systemic therapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic disease (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600X colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial, treatment with the combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Erbitux (cetuximab) resulted in an overall response rate of 4% (1/26), stable disease in 69% (18/26), and a median progression-free survival of 3.7 months in patients with BRAF V600-mutant colorectal cancer (PMID: 26287849). 26287849
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive BKM120 + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Buparlisib (BKM120) and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Binimetinib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, 20% (8/41) of melanoma patients with BRAF V600 mutations had a partial response to Binimetinib (MEK162) (PMID: 23414587). 23414587
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive ASN003 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma patient derived xenograft (PDX) model harboring a BRAF V600 mutation demonstrated antitumor activity when treated with ASN003 (J Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl; abstr e14102)). detail...
BRAF V600X colorectal cancer sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib/II trial, treatment with the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) resulted in partial response or better in 12% (5/43), including 1 complete response, and stable disease in 51% (22/43) of patients with BRAF V600-mutant colorectal cancer (PMID: 26392102). detail... 26392102
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients with unresectable or metastatic disease harboring BRAF V600 activating mutations, in cases where BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy is contraindicated (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive AMG 232 + Trametinib + Dabrafenib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, the combination therapy of AMG 232, Mekinist (trametinib), and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in 6 patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma harboring a BRAF V600 mutation resulted in 4 patients with a partial response and 2 patients with stable disease, and of the 6 patients, all experienced tumor reduction (J Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl; abstr 2575)). detail...
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive MK2206 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of MK2206 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive MK2206 + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of MK2206 and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive BKM120 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Buparlisib (BKM120) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X cholangiocarcinoma sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial, treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in partial response in 12% (1/8) and stable disease in 50% (4/8) of cholangiocarcinoma patients with BRAF V600 mutations (PMID: 26287849). 26287849
BRAF V600X colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab + Irinotecan Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib trial, the addition of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) to Camptosar (irinotecan) plus Erbitux (cetuximab) improved progression-free survival (4.4 mo vs. 2.0 mo), and disease control rate (67% vs. 22%), compared to Camptosar (irinotecan) plus Erbitux (cetuximab) without Zelboraf (vemurafenib), in patients with BRAF V600-mutant colorectal cancer (J Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl 4S; abstract 520)). detail...
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Selumetinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Selumetinib (AZD6244) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X melanoma sensitive Atezolizumab + Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib trial, the combination of Tecentriq (atezolizumab), Cotellic (cobimetinib), and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in antitumor efficacy in BRAF V600 positive melanoma patients, demonstrating an unconfirmed RECIST response in 85.3% (29/34) of patients, including 6 CRs and 23 PRs, and confirmed PRs in three patients (J Clin Oncol 35, 2017 (suppl; abstr 3063)). detail...
BRAF amp BRAF V600X NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical study, a melanoma patient harboring a BRAF V600 mutation developed resistant mutations, BRAF amplification and NRAS Q61K, during treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
AKT1 Q79K BRAF V600X PTEN pos melanoma sensitive MK2206 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of MK2206 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited AKT activation and growth of PTEN-expressing BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cells expressing AKT1 Q79K in culture, with increased efficacy over either agent alone (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
AKT1 Q79K BRAF V600X PTEN pos melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, expression of AKT1 Q79K in a wild-type PTEN-expressing BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell line conferred resistance to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF V600X PTEN H93D melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical study, a melanoma patient harboring a BRAF V600 mutation and PTEN H93D treated with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) for 66 weeks demonstrated a partial response (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600X PTEN neg melanoma sensitive GSK2141795 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, lack of PTEN expression was associated with increased sensitivity to GSK2141795 in BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell lines in culture (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
AKT1 E17K BRAF V600X PTEN pos melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, expression of AKT1 E17K in a wild-type PTEN-expressing BRAF V600-mutant melanoma cell line conferred resistance to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 24265152). 24265152
BRAF G466E HRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) reduced ERK signaling and inhibited proliferation of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF G466E and HRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 28783719). 28783719
BRAF G466E melanoma decreased response Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF G466E demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF G466E melanoma sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, AZ628 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF G466E in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF G466E melanoma decreased response PLX7904 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF G466E demonstrated decreased sensitivity to PLX7904 in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF G466E melanoma sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF G466E in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF G466E melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF G466E demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF G606E Advanced Solid Tumor no benefit Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in objective response in only 4% (1/23) of patient with advanced solid tumors harboring non-V600 BRAF mutations, 1 of the non-responding patients harbored BRAF G606E (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF fusion pilocytic astrocytoma not applicable N/A Guideline Diagnostic BRAF fusions aid in the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF fusion pilocytic astrocytoma not applicable N/A Guideline Prognostic BRAF fusions are associated with indolent disease in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor resistant RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to RAF265 in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor conflicting Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to Nexavar (sorafenib)-mediated inhibition of Erk phosphorylation but were equally as sensitive to Nexavar (sorafenib)-mediated growth inhibition as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation and growth of transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529N in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to PLX4720 in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529N Advanced Solid Tumor resistant SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529N were insensitive to SB590885 in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF G469A lung adenocarcinoma sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 decreased growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines harboring BRAF G469A in culture, and reduced tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 27834212). 27834212
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) treatment did not result in significant growth inhibition in a non-small lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma conflicting Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited growth of a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A in culture, and prevented Mekinist (trametinib)-related activation of AKT and resulted in increased induction of apoptosis compared to either agent alone (PMID: 25706985). 25706985
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma conflicting Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased proliferation compared to Mekinist (trametinib) alone in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469A small intestine carcinoma sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (ulixertinib) resulted in a partial response in two patients harboring BRAF G469A, including one patient with head and neck cancer and one patient with small bowel cancer (PMID: 29247021). 29247021
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Encorafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Braftovi (encorafenib) to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in increased growth inhibition in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 29903896). 29903896
BRAF G469A Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) did not inhibit MEK and ERK activation in transformed cells over expressing the constitutively dimerized BRAF G469A (PMID: 26343582). 26343582
BRAF G469A Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in objective response in only 4% (1/23) of patient with advanced solid tumors harboring non-V600 BRAF mutations, 2 of the non-responding patients harbored BRAF G469A (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive TAE226 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, TAE226 treatment inhibited proliferation of non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines harboring BRAF G469A mutation in culture (PMID: 26090892). 26090892
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) induced apoptosis and inhibited growth of a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 25706985). 25706985
BRAF G469A lung cancer resistant RMC-4550 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, RMC-4550 did not inhibit Erk phosphorylation or proliferation of lung cancer cells harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 30104724). 30104724
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A demonstrated resistance to induction of apoptosis by Zelboraf (vemurafenib,) and treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) was not effective in inhibiting growth in culture (PMID: 25706985). 25706985
BRAF G469A head and neck cancer sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (ulixertinib) resulted in a partial response in two patients harboring BRAF G469A, including one patient with head and neck cancer and one patient with small bowel cancer (PMID: 29247021). 29247021
BRAF G469A non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) resulted in decreased viability and enhanced ERK inhibition compared to either agent alone, in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring BRAF G469A in culture (PMID: 28947956). 28947956
BRAF L485W gallbladder cancer sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (Ulixertinib) resulted in a complete response lasting almost 1 year in a gallbladder cancer patient harboring BRAF L485W (PMID: 29247016, PMID: 29247021). 29247021 29247016
BRAF V600D NRAS dec exp melanoma no benefit Binimetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600D and knockdown of NRAS demonstrated a decreased response to Mektovi (binimetinib) relative to cells without NRAS knockdown in culture (PMID: 29245078). 29245078
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, AZ628 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive PLX7904 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX7904 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive CCT241161 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CCT241161 inhibited MEK and ERK phosphorylation and growth of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 25500121, PMID: 17210691). 25500121 17210691
BRAF V600D pilocytic astrocytoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, single Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and subsequent Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment resulted in disease stablization in a patient with pilocytic astrocytoma harboring BRAF V600D (PMID: 28784858). 28784858
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive CCT196969 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CCT196969 inhibited MEK and ERK phosphorylation and growth of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 25500121, PMID: 17210691). 25500121 17210691
BRAF V600D melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600D in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600D PTEN loss melanoma sensitive XL147 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, XL147 inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of a PTEN-deficient human melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600D (PMID: 25637314). 25637314
BRAF G469R NRAS Q61K melanoma decreased response Selumetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) modestly inhibited proliferation of human melanoma cells harboring BRAF G469R and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF G469R NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, LY3009120 inhibited soft agar growth of human melanoma cancer cells harboring BRAF G469R and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF G469R NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cells harboring BRAF G469R and NRAS G61K were insensitive to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 L115P in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P melanoma sensitive DEL-22379 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, DEL-22379 inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 L115P in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer resistant Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquired secondary resistance mutation MAP2K1 L115P (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Dabrafenib + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 L115P demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P melanoma resistant PD-0325901 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, over expression of MAPK21 L115P in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E resulted in insensitivity to growth inhibition by PD-0325901 in cell culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive LGX818 + Cetuximab + BYL719 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818) and Alpelisib (BYL719) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 L115P colorectal cancer sensitive SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 L115P mutation and subsequent resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P162S melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma cells expressing MAP2K2 P162S in culture (PMID: 24265154). 24265154
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P162S melanoma sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma cells expressing MAP2K2 P162S in culture (PMID: 24265154). 24265154
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P162S melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) inhibited growth of BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma cells expressing MAP2K2 P162S in culture (PMID: 24265154). 24265154
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 C121S demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma sensitive VRT11E Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 C121S demonstrated sensitivity to treatment with VRT11E, resulting in decreased cell growth in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma decreased response Selumetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E mutation and overexpressing MAP2K1 C121S were less sensitive than those overexpressing wild-type MAP2K1 to Selumetinib (AZD6244)-induced inhibition of Mapk pathway activation and cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 24448821). 24448821
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma sensitive E6201 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, E6201 inhibited Mapk pathway activation and proliferation of melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E mutation and overexpressing MAP2K1 C121S in culture (PMID: 24448821). 24448821
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, expression of MAP2K1 C121S conferred resistance to PLX4720 in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 21383288). 21383288
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma decreased response Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E mutation and overexpressing MAP2K1 C121S were less sensitive than those overexpressing wild-type MAP2K1 to Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-induced inhibition of Mapk pathway activation and cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 24448821). 24448821
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma decreased response Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a patient harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated an initial response to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib), but progressed following emergence of a MAP2K1 C121S mutation (PMID: 21383288). 21383288
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 C121S melanoma resistant Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, MAP2K1 C121S conferred resistance to the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma cells in culture (PMID: 24265154). 24265154
BRAF V600E PTEN loss melanoma sensitive Pictilisib + PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and PTEN loss demonstrated sensitivity when treated with a combination of Pictilisib (GDC-0941) and PLX4720, resulting in decreased cell proliferation in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E PTEN loss melanoma sensitive GSK2636771 + unspecified PD-1 antibody Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with the combination of GSK2636771 and a PD-1 antibody resulted in greater tumor infiltration of T-cells and tumor growth inhibition in mouse melanoma models expressing BRAF V600E with PTEN loss compared to either agent alone (PMID: 26645196). 26645196
BRAF V600E PTEN loss melanoma resistant Everolimus Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical study, a melanoma patient harboring PTEN loss and BRAF V600E demonstrated resistance to Afinitor (everolimus) treatment, resulting in progressive disease (PMID: 20664172). 20664174 20664172
BRAF V600E PTEN loss melanoma sensitive GDC0879 + Pictilisib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, GDC0879 and Pictilisib (GDC-0941) synergistically inhibited survival of melanoma cell lines harboring BFAF V600E and PTEN loss in cell culture (PMID: 19276360). 19276360
BRAF V600E PTEN loss melanoma sensitive XL147 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, XL147 inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of a PTEN-deficient human melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 25637314). 25637314
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive XL888 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with XL888 resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased growth of Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistant melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E along with NRAS Q61K in cell culture (PMID: 22351686). 22351686
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K lung adenocarcinoma predicted - resistant Trametinib + Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a breast cancer patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring BRAF V600E developed progressive disease after initial response to Talfinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination therapy, NRAS Q61K was identified as an acquired mutation after disease progression (PMID: 29631033). 29631033
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Talfinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in improved growth inhibition of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS Q61K in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a NRAS Q61K mutation conferred resistance to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 21107323). 21107323
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E expressing NRAS Q61K were resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) mediated growth inhibition and retained MEK and ERK signaling (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124L melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124L demonstrated a decreased response to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124L melanoma decreased response Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124L demonstrated a decreased response to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 I111N melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 I111N in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 I111N melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 I111N demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma decreased response GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S had reduced sensitivity to Omipalisib (GSK2126458) in comparison to parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S were resistant to growth inhibition by Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S were resistant Tafinlar (dabrafenib) mediated growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, A146T and MAP2K1 P387S were resistant to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124S melanoma sensitive VRT11E Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124S demonstrated sensitivity to treatment with VRT11E, resulting in decreased cell growth in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124S melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124S demonstrated resistance to treatment with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124S melanoma decreased response Selumetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 P124S demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Selumetinib (AZD6244) compared to cells harboring BRAF V600E alone in culture (PMID: 22197931). 22197931
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124S melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124S demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E PTEN loss TP53 wild-type colorectal cancer sensitive MLN0128 + PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Sapanisertib (MLN0128) and PD-0325901 synergistically inhibited Erk and PI3K signaling and proliferation, induced apoptosis in TP53-wild-type colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E and PTEN loss in culture and in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 26272063). 26272063
BRAF V600E KRAS G12D colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquisition of KRAS G12D (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G12D colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G12D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G12D colorectal cancer resistant LGX818 + Cetuximab + BYL719 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G12D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G12D colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G12D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 V211D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D colorectal cancer resistant SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 V211D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) combination treatment were resistant to SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D melanoma sensitive Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BVD-523 (Ulixertinib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 V211D in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) and Erbitux (cetuximab) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquired secondary resistant mutation of MAP2K1 V211D (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 V211D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D colorectal cancer resistant Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a MAP2K1 V211D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 V211D in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D melanoma resistant Selumetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K V211D demonstrated resistance to growth inhibition by Selumetinib (AZD6244) in cell culture (PMID: 19915144). 19915144
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D melanoma resistant CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K V211D demonstrated resistance to growth inhibition by CI-1040 in cell culture (PMID: 19915144). 19915144
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V211D melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 V211D demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E ERBB2 over exp KRAS A146V stomach cancer predicted - resistant Trastuzumab Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical study (AMNESIA-1), assessment of pre-treatment tumor samples from ERBB2 (HER2)-positive gastric or gastroesophageal cancer patients (defined as HER2 IHC 3+ or HER2 IHC 2+/ISH+) identified KRAS A146V and BRAF V600E in 1 patient demonstrating primary resistance to Herceptin (trastuzumab) (PMID: 29208673). 29208673
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 E203K melanoma sensitive Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BVD-523 (ulixertinib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 E203K in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 E203K melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 E203K demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 E203K melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 E203K demonstrated resistance to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E NRAS Q61K NRAS A146T melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Talfinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T and NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive PD-0325901 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PD-0325901 inhibited growth of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E pilocytic astrocytoma sensitive Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) treatment resulted in a near complete response and resolution of leptomeningeal dissemination in a patient with pilocytic astrocytoma harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 28784858). 28784858
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive LY3009120 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, LY3009120 inhibited growth, downstream MAPK signaling and soft agar growth in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26343583). 26343583
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Ganetespib + TAK-733 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the Hsp90 inhibitor, Ganetespib, in combination with the MEK1/2 inhibitor TAK-733, caused the regression of tumors in vemurafenib-resistant cell line xenograft models of melanoma (PMID: 24398428). 24398428
BRAF V600E melanoma conflicting PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line xenograft model harboring BRAF V600E treated with PD-0325901 demonstrated stable tumor growth, but by day 44, growth ensued and thus, demonstrated no benefit (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF V600E melanoma conflicting PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PD-0325901 inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Panitumumab Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, 83% (10/12) of patients with colorectal cancer carrying a BRAF V600E mutation demonstrated tumor regression when treated with a combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Vectibix (panitumumab) (PMID: 25589621). 25589621
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Navitoclax Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Navitoclax (ABT-263) enhanced the inhibitory effect of Mekinist (trametinib) on human melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Erlotinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Tarceva (erlotinib) resulted in improved inhibition of tumor growth in BRAF V600E mutant human colon cancer cell line xenograft models compared to either drug as monotherapy (PMID: 22448344). 22448344
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive CCT196969 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, CCT196969 inhibited growth of BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer cell lines in culture (PMID: 25500121), which have been reported to harbor BRAF V600E (PMID: 15294323). 25500121 15294323
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III clinical trial (BREAK-3) that supported FDA approval, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) improved median progression-free survival compared to Deticene (dacarbazine) (5.1 vs 2.7 months, HR=0.3, p<0.0001) in patients with BRAF V600E positive melanoma (PMID: 22735384; NCT01227889). 22735384
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients with unresectable or metastatic disease harboring BRAF V600 activating mutations, such as BRAF V600E, in cases where BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy is contraindicated (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E larynx cancer predicted - sensitive Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in complete response in a patient with larynx cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Encorafenib + Ribociclib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib/II trial, Encorafenib (LGX818) and Kisqali (ribociclib) combination treatment resulted in confirmed partial response in 7.1% (2/28), unconfirmed partial response in 10.7% (3/28), and stable disease in 35.7% (10/28) of patients with melanoma harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 28351928). 28351928
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive RO5126766 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, RO5126766 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26438159). 26438159
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive SBI-755199 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SBI-755199 induced cell death in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26603897). 26603897
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer no benefit Panitumumab + Trametinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, combination therapy consisting of Vectibix (panitumumab) and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in an overall response rate of 0% (0/31), stable disease in 55% (17/31), and a median progression-free survival of 2.6 months in patients with BRAF V600E colorectal cancer (PMID: 29431699; NCT01750918). 29431699
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive RXDX-105 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In preclinical studies, CEP-32496 (RXDX-105) reduced tumor volume and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models of a BRAF V600E mutant human melanoma cell line (PMID: 22319199). 22319199
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive BI 882370 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E were sensitive to the combination of BI 882370 and Mekinist (trametinib) in xenograft models, resulting in tumor growth inhibition and partial tumor regression (PMID: 26916115). 26916115
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive DETD-35 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, DETD-35 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) synergistically inhibited proliferation and colony formation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and reduced tumor size in xenograft models (PMID: 27048951). 27048951
BRAF V600E skin melanoma sensitive Ganetespib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the Hsp90 inhibitor Ganetespib destabilized BRAF, especially BRAF V600E, resulted in loss of cell viability in culture and antitumor effects in cell line xenograft models of melanoma (PMID: 24398428). 24398428
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PAC-1 + Trametinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of PAC-1 to Mekinist (trametinib) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) led to greater levels of caspase-3 activity and apoptosis in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E when compared to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) treatment without PAC-1 (PMID: 27297867). 27297867
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib) therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients with unresectable or metastatic disease harboring BRAF V600 activating mutations, such as BRAF V600E, in cases where BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapy is contraindicated (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (BRIM-3) that supported FDA approval, Zelboraf (vemurafenib), as compared to Deticene (dacarbazine), resulted in an improved overall survival (OS) (13.6 vs 9.7 months, HR=0.81, p=0.03) in patients with BRAF V600E-positive metastatic melanoma, with estimated OS rates of 56%, 30%, 21%, and 17% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (PMID: 28961848; NCT01006980). 28961848 21639808
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase II trial that supported FDA approval, treatment with the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring BRAF V600E resulted in an overall response rate of 66.7% (38/57) in previously treated patients and 64% (23/36) in untreated patients, versus 33% (26/78) treated with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) alone (PMID: 27080216, PMID: 27283860, PMID: 28919011; NCT01336634). 27283860 27080216 detail... 28919011
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) is in guidelines for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients with BRAF V600E mutations (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E colon neuroendocrine neoplasm predicted - sensitive Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Tafinlar (dabrafinib) treatment of a patient with recurrent neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon harboring a BRAF V600E mutation resulted in stable disease for 6 months before disease progression (PMID: 30181415). 30181415
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of thyroid cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Binimetinib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, 20% (8/41) of melanoma patients with BRAF V600 mutations had a partial response to Binimetinib (MEK162) (PMID: 23414587). 23414587
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Selumetinib + PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 and Selumetinib (AZD6244) worked synergistically to inhibit cell growth in PLX4720-resistant melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26461489). 26461489
BRAF V600E ovarian cancer sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 inhibited growth of a human ovarian cancer cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 19018267). 19018267
BRAF V600E pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma predicted - sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial (VE-BASKET), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment of BRAF V600E mutant pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas resulted in a 42.9% (3/7) objective response rate, a 5.7-month median progression-free survival, and best overall response rates of 14.3% (1/7) for complete response, 28.6% (2/7) for partial response, and 42.9% (3/7) for stable disease (PMID: 30351999; NCT01524978). 30351999
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Gefitinib + PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Iressa (gefitinib) in combination with PLX4720 inhibited proliferation and tumorigenicity in human melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and resistant to Braf inhibition in culture and in animal models (PMID: 23242808). 23242808
BRAF V600E hairy cell leukemia sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In two Phase II clinical studies, patients with refractory hairy cell leukemia harboring BRAF V600E responded to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) with overall response rates of 96% (25/26) and 100% (24/24) as well as complete response rates of 35% (9/26) and 42% (10/24) with median follow up times of 8 and 12 weeks, respectively (PMID: 26352686). 26352686
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BI 882370 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, xenograft models of melanoma harboring BRAF V600E treated with the combination of BI 882370 and Mekinist (trametinib) demonstrated tumor regression with no regrowth during the 5 weeks of treatment (PMID: 26916115). 26916115
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive BGB-283 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB-283 inhibited viability of a variety of cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26208524). 26208524
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive EBI-907 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, EBI-907 inhibited BRAF and ERK signaling, resulted in growth inhibition of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 26810733). 26810733
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive BGB-283 Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB-283 inhibited Braf phosphorylation and cell proliferation in colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and resulted in partial tumor regression in both cell line and patient-derived xenograft models (PMID: 26208524). 26208524
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Ulixertinib (BVD-523) inhibited Erk signaling in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E, resulted in cell cycle arrest in culture and tumor growth inhibition in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 28939558). 28939558
BRAF V600E melanoma predicted - sensitive RAF265 Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with RAF265 in melanoma patients resulted in an objective response rate of 12.1% (8/66), including a partial response in four patients harboring BRAF V600E, two partial responses and one complete response in patients with wild-type BRAF, and one complete response in a patient with unknown mutational status (PMID: 28719152). 28719152
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Dasatinib + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sprycel (dasatinib) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) synergistically inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both parental thyroid cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and those acquired Sprycel (dasatinib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27222538). 27222538
BRAF V600E pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma predicted - sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment resulted in clinical benefit lasted for 16 months in a patient with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29632053). 29632053
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Saracatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, saracatinib inhibited proliferation of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E that are resistant to Braf inhibition in culture (PMID: 23242808). 23242808
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In preclinical studies, Encorafenib (LGX818) treatment of human melanoma xenograft models with BRAF V600E significantly decreased Mek activation and resulted in tumor regression (Cancer Res: 72(8) Suppl 1, Abstract #3790). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive SBI-0640726 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SBI-0640726 inhibited proliferation and Akt/mTOR signaling in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26603897, PMID: 20531415). 20531415 26603897
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Everolimus + Pimasertib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Pimasertib (MSC1936369B) and Afinitor (everolimus) synergistically inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 23629727). 23629727
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PD-0325901 + Palbociclib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of PD-0325901 and Ibrance (palbociclib) resulted in significant tumor regression in melanoma cell line xenograft models harboring BRAF V600E and demonstrated a 56% (5/9) complete response rate (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF V600E renal cell carcinoma sensitive Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated a partial response following treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) (PMID: 26918217). 26918217
BRAF V600E glioblastoma multiforme predicted - sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment resulted in stable disease lasted for more than 16 months in a patient with epithelioid glioblastoma harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29632053). 29632053
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive SCH772984 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SCH772984 inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E glioblastoma multiforme sensitive BI2536 + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of BI 2536 and PLX4720 resulted in suppression of downstream signaling, increased apoptotic activity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and tumor growth suppression in glioblastoma cell line xenograft models harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 26573800). 26573800
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive PF3644022 + PF-477736 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Chk1 inhibitor PF-477736 and MK2 inhibitor PF3644022 synergistically inhibited growth of transformed cells over expressing BRAF V600E in culture, while single agent inhibition had no effect (PMID: 26140595). 26140595
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive E6201 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, E6201 inhibited Mapk pathway activation and proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E mutation in culture (PMID: 24448821). 24448821
BRAF V600E melanoma no benefit Palbociclib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with Ibrance (palbociclib) in a melanoma cell line xenograft model harboring BRAF V600E resulted in no benefit, demonstrating low but continuous growth (PMID: 27488531). 27488531
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, GDC0879 inhibited survival of colon cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in cell culture and cell line xenograft models (PMID: 19276360). 19276360
BRAF V600E malignant glioma predicted - sensitive Selumetinib + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) and PLX4720 synergistically inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cell lines in culture, resulted in prolonged survival in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 27217440). 27217440
BRAF V600E rectum cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab + Irinotecan Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Camptosar (irinotecan) combination therapy is included in guidelines for advanced or metastatic rectum cancer patients harboring BRAF V600E (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E colon carcinoma sensitive RXDX-105 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In preclinical studies, CEP-32496 (RXDX-105) reduced tumor volume and promoted tumor regression in xenograft models of a BRAF V600E mutant human colon carcinoma cell line (PMID: 22319199). 22319199
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Cobimetinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, Cotellic (cobimetinib) treatment resulted in a confirmed partial response in six melanoma patients harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 27424159). 27424159
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Pdx & cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, GDC0879 inhibited survival of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in cell culture, cell line xenograft and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models (PMID: 19276360). 19276360
BRAF V600E melanoma no benefit Sorafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II study, Nexavar (sorafenib) displayed negligible efficacy in melanoma patients with BRAF V600E mutations (PMID: 16880785, PMID: 22394203). 22394203 16880785
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cell lines harboring a BRAF V600E mutation were sensitive to Nexavar (sorafenib) in culture (PMID: 24885690). 24885690
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Dabrafenib + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive Panitumumab + Trametinib + Dabrafenib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), Vectibix (panitumumab), and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in an overall response rate of 21% (19/91, 1 complete response, 18 partial response), stable disease in 65% (59/91), and a median progression-free survival of 4.2 months in patients with BRAF V600E colorectal cancer (PMID: 29431699; NCT01750918). 29431699
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Cediranib + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 and Cediranib (AZD-2171) worked synergistically to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in PLX4720-resistant human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture and to suppress tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 26461489). 26461489
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) inhibited growth of both parental thyroid cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and those acquired Sprycel (dasatinib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27222538). 27222538
BRAF V600E glioblastoma multiforme sensitive BI2536 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a glioblastoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated sensitivity to BI2536 in culture (PMID: 26573800). 26573800
BRAF V600E melanoma no benefit SHP099 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SHP099 did not inhibit proliferation or ERK activation in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27362227). 27362227
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive BGB-283 Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, BGB-283 resulted in partial response in 1 thyroid cancer patient harboring BRAF V600E, who remained on treatment for over 481 days (AACR Annual Meeting, Apr 2016, abstract # CT005). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive LSN3074753 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, LSN3074753 demonstrated modest efficacy in patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF V600E, resulted in tumor growth inhibition or regression, but relapse upon discontinuation of treatment (PMID: 28611205). 28611205
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive PLX8394 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX8394 had been shown to block survival and growth of vemurafenib/PLX4720-resistant cells harboring distinct BRAF V600E splice variants (PMID: 24422853). 24422853
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Navitoclax + Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Navitoclax (ABT-263) enhanced the inhibitory effect of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) on human non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Lapatinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Tykerb (lapatinib) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited growth of thyroid cancer cells harboring a BRAF V600E mutation in culture and in BRAF-mutant mouse models of thyroid cancer (PMID: 23365119). 23365119
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) decreased tumor growth in a cell line xenograft model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 23942066). 23942066
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Panitumumab + Irinotecan Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib), Vectibix (panitumumab), and Irinotecan combination therapy is included in guidelines for advanced or metastatic colon cancer patients harboring BRAF V600E (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Gefitinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Iressa (gefitinib) decreased the number of viable colorectal cancer cells harboring a BRAF V600E mutation in cell culture (PMID: 22448344). 22448344
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX4720 + Tivozanib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 and Tivozanib (AV-951) worked synergistically to inhibit cell growth in PLX4720-resistant melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26461489). 26461489
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive BGB-283 + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB-283 in combination with Erbitux (cetuximab) demonstrated enhanced tumor suppression in colorectal cancer cell line xenograft models harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 26208524). 26208524
BRAF V600E lung cancer sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (ulixertinib) resulted in a partial response in two patients with lung cancer each harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29247021). 29247021
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive DT01 + Fluorouracil + Oxaliplatin Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, DT01 increased sensitivity of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells harboring BRAF V600E to Eloxatin (oxaliplatin) and Adrucil (5-fluorouracil), and the combination resulted in decreased liver tumor growth in CRC cell line xenograft metastasis models (PMID: 26637369). 26637369
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Alpelisib + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Alpelisib (BYL719) and PLX4720 enhanced antitumor activity in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E, demonstrating decreased cell survival and increased apoptotic activity in xenograft models, and decreased Akt signaling in culture (PMID: 27924459). 27924459
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive DETD-35 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, DETD-35 inhibited proliferation and colony formation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and reduced tumor size in xenograft models (PMID: 27048951). 27048951
BRAF V600E neuroendocrine tumor sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained clinical response in a patient with a rectal neuroendocrine tumor harboring a BRAF V600E mutation (PMID: 27048246). 27048246
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and SCH772984 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + SBI-060756 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in combination with SBI-0640756 inhibited the association of eIF4G1 and eIF4E in Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resistant human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture and reduced tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 26603897). 26603897
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase II trial (ROAR) that supported FDA approval, the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in an overall response rate of 69% (11/16; 1 complete response and 10 partial responses) in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29072975; NCT02034110). 29072975
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case report, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination treatment resulted in a clinical and radiologic response that lasted for 9 months in an anaplastic thyroid cancer patient harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 27697975). 27697975
BRAF V600E malignant glioma predicted - sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II clinical trial (VE-BASKET), treatment of patients with gliomas harboring BRAF V600E mutations with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in a 25% (6/24) objective response rate, 5.5-month median progression free survival, 28.2 month median overall survival, and best overall response rates of 4.2% (1/24) for complete response, 20.8% (5/24) for partial response, and 41.7% (10/24) for stable disease (PMID: 30351999; NCT01524978). 30351999
BRAF V600E glioblastoma multiforme decreased response PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a glioblastoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated a decreased response to treatment with PD-0325901, demonstrating increased viability of CD133 positive cells in culture (PMID: 26573800). 26573800
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive DEL-22379 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, DEL-22379 inhibited growth of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E with high levels of ERK dimerization in culture and inhibited tumor progression in melanoma xenograft models harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (METRIC) that supported FDA approval, Mekinist (trametinib) treatment, as compared to Deticine (dacarbazine) or Taxol (paclitaxel) treatment, resulted in improved progression-free survival of 4.8 months versus 1.5 months and an overall six month survival rate of 81% versus 67% in patients with BRAF V600E/K-positive metastatic melanoma (PMID: 22663011; NCT01245062). 22663011
BRAF V600E hairy cell leukemia not applicable N/A Guideline Diagnostic BRAF V600E is diagnostic and aids distinguishing classic hairy cell leukemia (HCL-C) from variant hairy cell leukemia (HCL-V) and other B-cell lymphomas and leukemias (PMID: 29118233). 29118233
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib + GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring a BRAF V600E mutation had increased sensitivity to Mekinist (trametinib) compared to other colorectal cancer lines in culture (PMID: 25309914). 25309914
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, TAK-632 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform of V600E which conferred Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PD-0325901 demonstrated antitumor activity against BRAF V600E colon cancer cell line xenografts (PMID: 16273091). 16273091
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer resistant SHP099 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclincial study, colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated resistance to SHP099 in culture (PMID: 27362227). 27362227
BRAF V600E ovarian cancer predicted - sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in an objective response of 50% (2/4, 2 partial response) in patients with ovarian cancer harboring BRAF V600E, and stable disease lasting more than 120 days in 1 patient (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive RO4987655 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, RO4987655 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26438159). 26438159
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive SB590885 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, SB590885 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform of V600E which conferred Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in an objective response of 46% (12/26, 2 complete response, 10 partial response) in patients with advanced solid tumors harboring BRAF V600E, but only 4% (1/23, 1 partial response) in patients harboring non-V600 BRAF mutations (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive CLM3 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CLM3 inhibited growth, Egfr signaling, and CCND1 expression in thyroid cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 24423321). 24423321
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + TW-37 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, TW-37 enhanced the inhibitory effect of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) on human melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (coBRIM) that supported FDA approval, treatment with the combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Cotellic (cobimetinib) resulted in an improved progression-free survival of 12.3 months, compared to 7.2 months with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) plus placebo, among patients with BRAF V600-mutated metastatic melanoma, which included patients identified to harbor BRAF V600E or BRAF V600K (PMID: 27480103; NCT01689519). 27480103
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, AZ628 inhibited proliferation of melanoma cell lines harboring either monomeric BRAF V600E or dimeric isoform of V600E which conferred Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive CCT196969 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, CCT196969 inhibited growth of a human melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and induced tumor regression in several BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma patient-derived xenograft models (PMID: 25500121). 25500121
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of PLX4720 and Erbitux (cetuximab) inhibited tumor growth in colorectal cancer cell line xenograft models harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 22281684). 22281684
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Refametinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Refametinib (BAY86-9766) inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture and suppressed tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 19706763). 19706763
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation and growth of transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Lapatinib + Panobinostat Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tykerb (lapatinib) and Faridak (panobinostat) worked synergistically to inhibit growth of BRAF V600E mutant colorectal cancer cells in culture (PMID: 21464044). 21464044
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF265 inhibited Erk phosphorylation and cell proliferation in BRAF V600E expressing cells in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Refametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Refametinib (BAY86-9766) inhibited growth of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture and suppressed tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 19706763). 19706763
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive CCT241161 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CCT241161 inhibited growth of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25500121, PMID: 15294323). 25500121 15294323
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Vemurafenib + TW-37 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, TW-37 enhanced the inhibitory effect of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) on human non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive RAF709 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF709 inhibited Erk signaling and proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 29343524). 29343524
BRAF V600E malignant glioma predicted - sensitive Everolimus + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Afinitor (everolimus) and PLX4720 synergistically inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cell lines in culture (PMID: 27217440). 27217440
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive Gedatolisib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Gedatolisib (PKI-587) inhibited Braf V600E in vitro and inhibited growth of human colon cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 21325073, PMID: 24042735). 24042735 21325073
BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response Nivolumab Clinical Study Actionable In a retrospective analysis, patients with melanoma harboring BRAF V600E (n=84) had decreased response rates (29% vs. 53%, p=0.059), progression-free survival (2.7 vs. 19 months, p=0.049), and overall survival (11.7 vs. 20.4 months, p=0.081) relative to patients with BRAF V600K (n=19) when treated with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) (n=62 and 17 for BRAF V600E and V600K, respectively) or Opdivo (nivolumab) (n=22 and 2 for BRAF V600E and V600K, respectively) (PMID: 30630828). 30630828
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive S3I-201 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, S3I-201 inhibited cell invasion and Stat3 signaling in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E that are resistant to Braf inhibition in culture (PMID: 23242808). 23242808
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Erbitux (cetuximab) combination treatment inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, the combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Erbitux (cetuximab) was tolerated and showed clinical benefit in a patient with BRAF V600E mutant colorectal cancer (PMID: 24523613). 24523613
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive ASN003 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma xenograft model harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated tumor regression when treated with ASN003 (Mol Cancer Ther 2015;14(12 Suppl 2):Abstract nr B100). detail...
BRAF V600E colon cancer resistant Cetuximab Guideline Actionable Erbitux (cetuximab) is not indicated for use in colon cancer patients with BRAF V600E (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive BI 882370 + Afatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E were sensitive to the combination of BI 882370 and Gilotrif (afatinib) in xenograft models, resulting in tumor growth inhibition and partial tumor regression (PMID: 26916115). 26916115
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive SBI-0640756 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SBI-0640756 inhibited proliferation and Akt/mTOR signaling in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26603897, PMID: 20531415). 20531415 26603897
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Dasatinib + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sprycel (dasatinib) and SCH772984 synergistically inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both parental thyroid cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and those acquired Sprycel (dasatinib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27222538). 27222538
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive LGX818 + Cetuximab + BYL719 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818) and Alpelisib (BYL719) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX4720 + Vorinostat Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of PLX4720 and Zolinza (vorinostat) resulted in antitumor efficacy in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E, demonstrating decreased cell survival and increased apoptotic activity in xenograft models, and decreased Rb phosphorylation in culture (PMID: 27924459). 27924459
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cetuximab + Irinotecan Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib), Erbitux (cetuximab), and Camptosar (irinotecan) combination therapy is included in guidelines for advanced or metastatic colon cancer patients harboring BRAF V600E (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E salivary gland carcinoma predicted - sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case report, combined Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) treatment of a patient with salivary duct carcinoma harboring BRAF V600E resulted in a reduction of metastatic lesions and stable disease lasting 13 months followed by disease progression (PMID: 30323086). 30323086
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Ulixertinib (BVD-523) inhibited Erk signaling in colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E, resulted in cell cycle arrest in culture and tumor growth inhibition in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 28939558). 28939558
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer sensitive Dasatinib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Sprycel (dasatinib) and Mekinist (trametinib) synergistically inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both parental thyroid cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and those acquired Sprycel (dasatinib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27222538). 27222538
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive Navitoclax + Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Navitoclax (ABT-263) enhanced the inhibitory effect of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) on human colon cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E rectum cancer resistant Panitumumab Guideline Actionable Vectibix (panitumumab) is not indicated for use in rectum cancer patients with BRAF V600E unless it is given with a BRAF inhibitor (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) and Erbitux (cetuximab) combination treatment inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PAC-1 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of PAC-1 and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) resulted in a synergistic effect when treating melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and xenograft models, demonstrating increased apoptosis and decreased tumor volume (PMID: 27297867). 27297867
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX7904 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX7904 inhibited survival of melanoma cell lines harboring monomeric BRAF V600E as well as cells harboring the Zelboraf (vemurafenib)-resistant dimeric BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26466569). 26466569
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BI-69A11 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, BI-69A11 inhibited proliferation and Akt/mTOR signaling in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26603897, PMID: 20531415). 20531415 26603897
BRAF V600E lung carcinoma resistant Dasatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Sprycel (dasatinib) failed to induce apoptosis in lung carcinoma cells expressing BRAF V600E (PMID: 22649091). 22649091
BRAF V600E colon cancer predicted - sensitive Cetuxmab + Sorafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case report, a patient with metastatic colon cancer harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated a mixed radiographic response, with slight progression in some locations, however, response or stable disease for 7 months in other locations following treatment with the combination of Nexavar (sorafenib) and Erbitux (cetuximab) (PMID: 23792568). 23792568
BRAF V600E papillary thyroid carcinoma sensitive RO5126766 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RO5126766 inhibited Mek signaling and increased radioiodide uptake and response in transgenic animal models of papillary thyroid carcinoma driven by BRAF V600E (PMID: 27669459). 27669459
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cell lines harboring a BRAF V600E mutation had increased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture compared to cell lines with wild-type BRAF (PMID: 24885690). 24885690
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive PLX4720 + TAK-632 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 and TAK-632 combination treatment resulted in durable inhibition of Erk signaling and tumor growth in xenograft models of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Pimasertib + Sorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Pimasertib (MSC1936369B) and Nexavar (sorafenib) synergistically inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 23629727). 23629727
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and suppressed angiogenesis and tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 21170960). 21170960
BRAF V600E melanoma resistant RMC-4550 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, RMC-4550 did not inhibit Erk phosphorylation or proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 30104724). 30104724
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib + TW-37 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, TW-37 enhanced the inhibitory effect of Mekinist (trametinib) on human non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Dabrafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, 33% (26/78) of previously treated non-small cell lung carcinoma patients harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated an overall response, which included all partial responses, when treated with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) while 67% (4/6) receiving Tafinlar (dabrafenib) as a first-line treatment achieved partial responses (PMID: 27080216; NCT01336634). 27080216
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) is in guidelines for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients with BRAF V600E mutations who can not tolerate the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SB590885 inhibited inhibited Erk phosphorylation and cell proliferation of transformed cells expression BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Panitumumab + Dabrafenib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Vectibix (panitumumab) resulted in an overall response rate of 10% (2/20, 1 complete response, 1 partial response), stable disease in 80% (16/20), and a median progression-free survival of 3.5 months in patients with BRAF V600E colorectal cancer (PMID: 29431699; NCT01750918). 29431699
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Panitumumab + Dabrafenib Phase Ib/II Actionable In a Phase Ib/II trial, treatment with the combination of Vectibix (panitumumab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) resulted in stable disease in 7/8 colorectal cancer patients harboring a BRAF V600E mutation (J Clin Oncol 32:5s, 2014 (suppl; abstr 3515)). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Navitoclax + Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Navitoclax (ABT-263) enhanced the inhibitory effect of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) on human melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E colorectal adenocarcinoma sensitive DEL-22379 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, DEL-22379 inhibited tumor growth in a colorectal adenocarcinoma patient-derived xenograft model harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib + SCH772984 + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), SCH772984, and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in durable inhibition of Erk signaling and proliferation of melanoma cells overexpressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 28714990). 28714990
BRAF V600E rectum cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Panitumumab + Irinotecan Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib), Vectibix (panitumumab), and Irinotecan combination therapy is included in guidelines for advanced or metastatic rectum cancer patients harboring BRAF V600E (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Encorafenib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, Encorafenib (LGX818) showed activity in patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer harboring a BRAF V600E mutation, resulting in a median progression-free survival of 4 months and a best response of stable disease in 66.7% (12/18) (Ann Oncol (2014) 25 (suppl 4): iv182-iv183). detail...
BRAF V600E rectum cancer resistant Cetuximab Guideline Actionable Erbitux (cetuximab) is not indicated for use in rectum cancer patients with BRAF V600E unless it is given with a BRAF inhibitor (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E ganglioglioma predicted - sensitive Dabrafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) treatment resulted in partial response 8 weeks after therapy initiation in a pediatric patient with anaplastic ganglioglioma harboring BRAF V600E, but disease progression occurred at 40 weeks due to acquired resistance (PMID: 29880583). 29880583
BRAF V600E neuroendocrine tumor sensitive Trametinib + Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, Mekinist (trametinib) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) combination treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained clinical response in a patient with a rectal neuroendocrine tumor harboring a BRAF V600E mutation (PMID: 27048246). 27048246
BRAF V600E malignant glioma predicted - sensitive Everolimus + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Selumetinib (AZD6244) and Afinitor (everolimus) synergistically inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in glioma cell lines in culture, resulted in prolonged survival in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 27217440). 27217440
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive BI 882370 + Cetuximab Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E were sensitive to the combination of BI 882370 and Erbitux (cetuximab) in xenograft models, resulting in tumor growth inhibition and partial tumor regression (PMID: 26916115). 26916115
BRAF V600E glioblastoma multiforme decreased response PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a glioblastoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated a decreased response to treatment with PLX4720, demonstrating increased viability of CD133 positive cells in culture and in xenograft models (PMID: 26573800). 26573800
BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 inhibited Erk phosphorylation and cell proliferation of transformed cells expression BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E melanoma decreased response Pembrolizumab Clinical Study Actionable In a retrospective analysis, patients with melanoma harboring BRAF V600E (n=84) had decreased response rates (29% vs. 53%, p=0.059), progression-free survival (2.7 vs. 19 months, p=0.049), and overall survival (11.7 vs. 20.4 months, p=0.081) relative to patients with BRAF V600K (n=19) when treated with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) (n=62 and 17 for BRAF V600E and V600K, respectively) or Opdivo (nivolumab) (n=22 and 2 for BRAF V600E and V600K, respectively) (PMID: 30630828). 30630828
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Trametinib + Navitoclax Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Navitoclax (ABT-263) enhanced the inhibitory effect of Mekinist (trametinib) on human non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer predicted - sensitive Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of both parental thyroid cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and those acquired Sprycel (dasatinib)-resistance in culture (PMID: 27222538). 27222538
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive Trametinib + Navitoclax Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Navitoclax (ABT-263) enhanced the inhibitory effect of Mekinist (trametinib) on human colon cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited growth of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Guideline Actionable Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) combination therapy is included in guidelines for melanoma patients harboring a BRAF V600 activating mutation, such as BRAF V600E, as adjuvant therapy for stage III disease and as systemic therapy for patients with unresectable or metastatic disease (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, BRAF V600E positive melanoma patients who progressed on treatment with BRAF inhibitors or the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) were treated again with the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) after 12 weeks off treatment, which resulted in a partial response in 35% (8/25) and stable disease in 40% (10/25) (PMID: 28268064). 28268064
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib FDA approved Actionable In a Phase III trial (COMBI-v) that supported FDA approval, the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in an improved overall survival rate at 12 months (72% vs 65%, HR=0.69, p=0.005), median progression-free survival (11.4 vs 7.3 months, HR=0.56, p<0.001), and objective response rate (64% vs 51%, p<0.001) compared to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in melanoma patients harboring BRAF V600E or V600K (PMID: 25399551; NCT01597908). 25399551
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Pimasertib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Pimasertib (MSC1936369B) inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 23629727). 23629727
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Pimasertib + Regorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Pimasertib (MSC1936369B) and Stivarga (regorafenib) synergistically inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 23629727). 23629727
BRAF V600E glioblastoma multiforme sensitive Ulixertinib Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, treatment with BVD-523 (Ulixertinib) resulted in a partial response in a patient with glioblastoma harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29247021). 29247021
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer conflicting Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in complete response in a patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF V600E thyroid cancer conflicting Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, thyroid cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27523909). 27523909
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive PLX7904 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX7904 inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 26466569). 26466569
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Omipalisib (GSK2126458) inhibited the growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive INU-152 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, INU-152 reduced MEK and ERK phosphorylation and growth of a melanona cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models (PMID: 28645859). 28645859
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer no benefit Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) did not demonstrate meaningful clinical activity as a single agent, resulted in partial response in 5% (1/21) and stable disease in 33% (7/21) of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 26460303; NCT00405587). 26460303
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer no benefit Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cell lines were not sensitive to growth inhibition by Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture or xenograft models, due to feedback activation of EGFR signaling (PMID: 22281684). 22281684
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer no benefit Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E demonstrated decreased response to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Dasatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Sprycel (dasatinib) inhibited cell invasion, cell signaling, and proliferation in human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E that are resistant to Braf inhibition in culture and in animal models (PMID: 23242808). 23242808
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Vemurafenib Guideline Actionable Zelboraf (vemurafenib) is in guidelines for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients with BRAF V600E mutations who can not tolerate the combination of Mekinist (trametinib) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Vemurafenib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial (MyPathway), Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment resulted in an objective response of 43% (6/14, 1 complete response, 5 partial response) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring BRAF V600E, and stable disease lasting more than 120 days in 2 patients (PMID: 29320312; NCT02091141). 29320312
BRAF V600E non-small cell lung carcinoma sensitive Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a non-small cell lung cancer patient harboring a BRAF V600E mutation had a complete response after treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) (PMID: 23733758). 23733758
BRAF V600E colon cancer resistant Panitumumab Guideline Actionable Vectibix (panitumumab) is not indicated for use in colon cancer patients with BRAF V600E (NCCN.org). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BGB-283 Phase I Actionable In a Phase I trial, BGB-283 resulted in partial response in 1 of 2 melanoma patients harboring BRAF V600E, who remained on treatment for over 249 days (AACR Annual Meeting, Apr 2016, abstract # CT005). detail...
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BGB-283 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BGB-283 inhibited Braf phosphorylation and cell proliferation in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26208524). 26208524
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive SCH772984 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, SCH772984 inhibited growth of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 inhibited growth of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 18287029). 18287029
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Trametinib + TW-37 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, TW-37 enhanced the inhibitory effect of Mekinist (trametinib) on human melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 25665005). 25665005
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Selumetinib Phase II Actionable In a Phase II trial, a favorable response rate to selumetinib (AZD6244) was observed in mutant BRAF but not BRAF wild-type melanoma patients (PMID: 22048237). 22048237
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Cotellic (cobimetinib) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) inhibited tumor growth in a cell line xenograft model of colorectal cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 28649441). 28649441
BRAF V600E colon adenocarcinoma not applicable N/A Phase III Emerging In a post-hoc analysis of a Phase III trial, BRAF V600E mutations in colon adenocarcinoma patients with microsatellite stable tumors were associated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival compared to those patients with microsatellite instability tumors, suggesting that BRAF V600E may serve as a future prognostic biomarker in this patient population (PMID: 26768652). 26768652
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Erlotinib + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of PLX4720 and Tarceva (erlotinib) resulted in antitumor efficacy in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E, demonstrating decreased cell survival and increased apoptotic activity in xenograft models and culture (PMID: 27924459). 27924459
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive INU-152 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, INU-152 inhibited growth of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and reduced tumor growth in BRAF V600E-mutant colorectal cancer cell line xenograft models (PMID: 28645859). 28645859
BRAF V600E colon cancer sensitive PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 inhibited growth of colon cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 18287029). 18287029
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive CCT241161 Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, CCT241161 inhibited growth of a human melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and induced tumor regression in several BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma patient-derived xenograft models (PMID: 25500121). 25500121
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Cediranib + Selumetinib + PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720, Cediranib (AZD-2171) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) worked synergistically to inhibit cell growth in PLX4720-resistant melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26461489). 26461489
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX4720 + Navitoclax Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, PLX4720 and navitoclax (ABT-263) worked synergistically to inhibit growth and increase apoptosis of BRAF V600E mutant melanoma cells in culture and in xenografts (PMID: 24983357). 24983357
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive PLX4720 + Doxorubicin Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of PLX4720 and Adriamycin (doxorubicin) resulted in antitumor efficacy in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E, demonstrating decreased cell survival and increased apoptotic activity in xenograft models, and inhibition of cell growth in culture (PMID: 27924459). 27924459
BRAF V600E colon neuroendocrine neoplasm no benefit Binimetinib Clinical Study Actionable In Phase II trial, Mektovi (binimetinib) therapy in a patient with recurrent neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon harboring a BRAF V600E mutation who had previously progressed on Tafinlar (dabrafinib) resulted in disease progression after two cycles (PMID: 30181415; NCT01885195). 30181415
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Imatinib + PLX4720 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Gleevec (imatinib) and PLX4720 enhanced antitumor efficacy of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E, demonstrating decreased cell survival in xenograft models, and decreased phosphorylation of Mapk1 in culture (PMID: 27924459). 27924459
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BI-847325 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, treatment with BI-847325 resulted in decreased expression of Mcl-1 and Mek, and inhibited growth of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture, and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of BRAF V600E-positive melanoma, including models with BRAF-inhibitor resistance (PMID: 25873592). 25873592
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer predicted - sensitive Binimetinib + Cetuximab + Encorafenib Phase III Actionable In a Phase III (BEACON CRC) trial, Braftovi (encorafenib), Mektovi (binimetinib), and Erbitux (cetuximab) combination treatment resulted in an objective response rate of 48% (14/29, 3 complete responses), and stable disease in 52% (15/29) of patients with BRAF V600E metastatic colorectal cancer, with a median progression-free survival of 8.0 months (Annals of Oncology, Volume 29, Issue suppl_5; NCT02928224). detail...
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive EBI-907 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, EBI-907 inhibited BRAF and ERK signaling, resulted in growth inhibition of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 26810733). 26810733
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 Q56P melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E expressing MAP2K1 Q56P were resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) mediated growth inhibition and retained MEK and ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 Q56P melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 Q56P demonstrated resistance to treatment with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 Q56P melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E expressing MAP2K1 Q56P displayed reduced sensitivity to Mekinist (trametinib) mediated growth inhibition and retained MEK and ERK signaling (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 Q56P melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Talfinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in improved growth inhibition in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 Q56P in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 Q56P melanoma sensitive Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, BVD-523 (ulixertinib) inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 Q56P in culture (PMID: 28655712). 28655712
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, and MAP2K1 P387S in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K melanoma decreased response GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K and MAP2K1 P387S had reduced sensitivity to Omipalisib (GSK2126458) in comparison to parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K and MAP2K1 P387S were resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) mediated growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K melanoma conflicting Dabrafenib + GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, the response of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K, and MAP2K1 P387S to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) was conflicting as one cell line with this mutation profile responded to the combination and another cell line with the mutation profile did not (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K and MAP2K1 P387S were >20-fold less sensitive to growth inhibition by Mekinist (trametinib) than parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P387S NRAS Q61K melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS Q61K and MAP2K1 P387S were resistant to growth inhibition by Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
MAP2K1 Q56P BRAF V600E melanoma resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring the MAP2K1 Q56P mutation in the presence of BRAF V600E were resistant to the B-RAF inhibitor PLX4720 in culture (PMID: 19915144). 19915144
MAP2K1 Q56P BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive Selumetinib + PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, combined treatment with selumetinib and PLX4720 strongly suppressed the emergence of resistant MAP2K1 mutations in BRAF V600E cells in culture (PMID: 19915144). 19915144
MAP2K1 Q56P BRAF V600E melanoma resistant Selumetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring the MAP2K1 Q56P mutation in the presence of BRAF V600E were resistant to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) cell culture. 19915144
BRAF V600E CSF1R positive melanoma sensitive Pexidartinib + Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma mouse model harboring BRAF V600E treated with Zelboraf (vemurafenib) demonstrated a greater drug induced sensitivity when treatment was combined with PLX3397, resulting in increased infiltration of lymphocytes via Csf1r inhibition and elevated antitumor activity (PMID: 25939769). 25939769
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V60E melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 V60E demonstrated resistance to treatment with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture, resulting in sustained Map2k1/2 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 V60E melanoma sensitive VRT11E Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 V60E demonstrated sensitivity to treatment with VRT11E, resulting in decreased cell growth in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF amp BRAF V600E colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Selumetinib (AZD6244) and Erbitux (cetuximab) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquired BRAF V600E amplification (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF amp BRAF V600E lung adenocarcinoma sensitive Dabrafenib + SCH772984 + Trametinib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib), SCH772984, and Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in durable tumor inhibition in cell line xenograft models of BRAF V600E mutated lung adenocarcinoma cells that acquired resistance to Erk inhibitors through BRAF amplification (PMID: 28714990). 28714990
BRAF amp BRAF V600E lung adenocarcinoma decreased response SCH772984 Preclinical - Patient cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, patient-derived BRAF V600E mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells that acquired resistance to Erk inhibitor through BRAF amplification were less sensitive to SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 28714990). 28714990
BRAF amp BRAF V600E colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired BRAF V600E amplification and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF amp BRAF V600E colorectal cancer resistant SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired BRAF V600E amplification and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) combination treatment were resistant to SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 P124Q melanoma decreased response Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 P124Q demonstrated decreased sensitivity to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in cell culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K57E melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, expression of MAP2K1 K57E in a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E conferred resistance to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 25370473). 25370473
BRAF V600E KRAS mutant colorectal cancer sensitive DEL-22379 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, DEL-22379 inhibited growth of KRAS-mutant melanoma cells over expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E KRAS mutant colorectal cancer resistant PD-0325901 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, over expression of BRAF V600E in KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells resulted in resistance to growth inhibition by PD-0325901 in cell culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in improved growth inhibition of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T were >10-fold less sensitive to growth inhibition by Mekinist (trametinib) than parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma decreased response GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T had reduced sensitivity to Omipalisib (GSK2126458) in comparison to parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T were resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T were resistant to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib + GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Talfinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 G128V melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 G128V demonstrated resistance to treatment with Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture, resulting in sustained Map2k1/2 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 G128V melanoma sensitive VRT11E Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 G128V demonstrated sensitivity to treatment with VRT11E, resulting in decreased cell growth in culture (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 G128V melanoma resistant Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, MAP2K1 G128V conferred resistance to the combination of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma cells in culture (PMID: 24265154). 24265154
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 G128V melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 G128V demonstrated resistance to treatment with Mekinist (trametinib) in culture, resulting in sustained Map2k1/2 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation (PMID: 24265153). 24265153
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K57T refractory hairy cell leukemia predicted - sensitive Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a single patient with hairy cell leukemia who relapsed after initial response to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) was found to have acquired multiple clones with Mek/Erk activating mutations, of which the MAP2K1 K57T clone became dominant, and demonstrated a sustained response greater than 12 months to combined Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Cotellic (cobimetinib) treatment (PMID: 30341394). 30341394
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K57T hairy cell leukemia predicted - resistant Vemurafenib Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical case study, a single patient with hairy cell leukemia harboring BRAF V600E, who relapsed after a 38 week remission in response to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) treatment, was found to have acquired multiple clones with Mek/Erk activating mutations, of which the MAP2K1 K57T clone became dominant (PMID: 30341394). 30341394
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant LGX818 + Cetuximab + BYL719 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquisition of KRAS G13D (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS G13D colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS G13D mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E TP53 Q192K colon cancer sensitive Vemurafenib + Panitumumab Clinical Study Actionable In a clinical study, a colon cancer patient harboring BRAF V600E and TP53 Q192K demonstrated a partial response when treated with a combination of Zelboraf (vemurafenib) and Vectibix (panitumumab) (PMID: 28514312). 28514312
BRAF V600E KRAS amp colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS amplification and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS amp colorectal cancer resistant Dabrafenib + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS amplification and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS amp colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquired KRAS amplification (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS amp colorectal cancer resistant SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS amplification and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment were resistant to SCH772984 in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS amp colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS amplification and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T KRAS A146V colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS A146V and A146T mutations and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Selumetinib (AZD6244) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T KRAS A146V colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS A146V and A146T mutations and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T KRAS A146V colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS A146V and A146T mutations and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T KRAS A146V colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired KRAS A146V and A146T mutations and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T KRAS A146V colorectal cancer resistant LGX818 + Cetuximab + BYL719 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to combination treatment consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) in culture, likely due to the acquisition of KRAS A146V and A146T secondary resistance mutations (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E NRAS G12V melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, expression of NRAS G12V in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E conferred resistance to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E NRAS G12V melanoma sensitive DEL-22379 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, DEL-22379 inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and over expressing NRAS G12V in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant PLX4720 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529I were insensitive to PLX4720-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive CI-1040 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, CI-1040 (PD184352) inhibited Erk phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529I in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - resistant SB590885 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatepkeeper mutation BRAF T529I were insensitive to SB590885-mediated inhibition of ERK signaling in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive RAF265 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, RAF265 inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529I to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E BRAF T529I Advanced Solid Tumor predicted - sensitive Sorafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Nexavar (sorafenib) inhibited kinase activity in vitro, and downstream Erk phosphorylation in cells expressing BRAF V600E and the gatekeeper mutation BRAF T529I to a similar degree as transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 20538618). 20538618
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T colorectal cancer sensitive Cetuximab + Dabrafenib + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Tafinlar (dabrafenib), and Mekinist (trametinib) inhibited survival of colorectal cancer cell lines harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS A146T mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T colorectal cancer resistant Vemurafenib + Cetuximab Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS A146T mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Dabrafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquired secondary resistance mutation KRAS A146T (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T colorectal cancer resistant LGX818 + Cetuximab + BYL719 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E that acquired a KRAS A146T mutation and subsequent resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib) combination treatment were resistant to combination therapy consisting of Erbitux (cetuximab), Encorafenib (LGX818), and Alpelisib (BYL719) in culture (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E KRAS A146T colorectal cancer resistant Cetuximab + Encorafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E developed sustained activation of Mapk signaling and resistance to Erbitux (cetuximab) and Encorafenib (LGX818) combination treatment in culture, likely due to the acquired secondary resistance mutation KRAS A146T (PMID: 27312529). 27312529
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma resistant Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 K59del were resistant to growth inhibition by Mekinist (trametinib) in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 K59del were resistant to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma resistant Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 K59del were resistant to Tafinlar (dabrafenib) mediated growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma decreased response GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 K59del had reduced sensitivity to Omipalisib (GSK2126458) in comparison to parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma sensitive Trametinib + Dabrafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Talfinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Mekinist (trametinib) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E harboring MAP2K1 K59del in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma sensitive Dabrafenib + GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Tafinlar (dabrafenib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 K59del in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 K59del melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition of human melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and MAP2K1 K59del in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 H119P melanoma resistant Selumetinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E treated with Selumetinib (AZD6244) in culture demonstrated resistance, which was a result of the resistance mutation, MAP2K1 H119P (PMID: 19915144). 19915144
BRAF V600E KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer no benefit Palbociclib + Trametinib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) and Ibrance (palbociclib) combination treatment did not result in enhanced antitumor activity compared to Ibrance (palbociclib) alone in PDX models of KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer harboring BRAF V600E (PMID: 26369631). 26369631
BRAF V600E PTEN mut melanoma sensitive ASN003 Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line xenograft model co-harboring BRAF V600E and a PTEN mutation demonstrated tumor growth inhibition when treated with ASN003 (Mol Cancer Ther 2015;14(12 Suppl 2):Abstract nr B100). detail...
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 I103N melanoma sensitive DEL-22379 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, DEL-22379 inhibited growth of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF V600E and expressing MAP2K1 I103N in culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E MAP2K1 I103N melanoma resistant PD-0325901 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, over expression of MAPK21 I103N in melanoma cells harboring BRAF V600E resulted in insensitivity to growth inhibition by PD-0325901 in cell culture (PMID: 26267534). 26267534
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma decreased response GSK2126458 Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S had reduced sensitivity to Omipalisib (GSK2126458) in comparison to parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S were resistant to Zelboraf (vemurafenib) growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma decreased response Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S were >20-fold less sensitive to growth inhibition by Mekinist (trametinib) than parental cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and also had reduced sensitivity in comparison to cell lines harboring BRAF V600E and NRAS A146T in culture (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma sensitive GSK2126458 + Trametinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Mekinist (trametinib) in combination with Omipalisib (GSK2126458) resulted in improved growth inhibition in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E, NRAS A146T and MAP2K1 P387S in culture, compared to either agent alone (PMID: 22389471). 22389471
BRAF V600E NRAS A146T MAP2K1 P387S melanoma no benefit