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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (33318037)
Authors Hong A, Piva M, Liu S, Hugo W, Lomeli SH, Zoete V, Randolph CE, Yang Z, Wang Y, Lee JJ, Lo SJ, Sun L, Vega-Crespo A, Garcia AJ, Shackelford DB, Dubinett SM, Scumpia PO, Byrum SD, Tackett AJ, Donahue TR, Michielin O, Holmen SL, Ribas A, Moriceau G, Lo RS
Title Durable Suppression of Acquired MEK Inhibitor Resistance in Cancer by Sequestering MEK from ERK and Promoting Antitumor T-cell Immunity.
Journal Cancer discovery
Vol 11
Issue 3
Date 2021 Mar
URL
Abstract Text MAPK targeting in cancer often fails due to MAPK reactivation. MEK inhibitor (MEKi) monotherapy provides limited clinical benefits but may serve as a foundation for combination therapies. Here, we showed that combining a type II RAF inhibitor (RAFi) with an allosteric MEKi durably prevents and overcomes acquired resistance among cancers with KRAS, NRAS, NF1, BRAFnon-V600, and BRAFV600 mutations. Tumor cell-intrinsically, type II RAFi plus MEKi sequester MEK in RAF complexes, reduce MEK/MEK dimerization, and uncouple MEK from ERK in acquired-resistant tumor subpopulations. Immunologically, this combination expands memory and activated/exhausted CD8+ T cells, and durable tumor regression elicited by this combination requires CD8+ T cells, which can be reinvigorated by anti-PD-L1 therapy. Whereas MEKi reduces dominant intratumoral T-cell clones, type II RAFi cotreatment reverses this effect and promotes T-cell clonotypic expansion. These findings rationalize the clinical development of type II RAFi plus MEKi and their further combination with PD-1/L1-targeted therapy. SIGNIFICANCE: Type I RAFi + MEKi are indicated only in certain BRAFV600MUT cancers. In contrast, type II RAFi + MEKi are durably active against acquired MEKi resistance across broad cancer indications, which reveals exquisite MAPK addiction. Allosteric modulation of MAPK protein/protein interactions and temporal preservation of intratumoral CD8+ T cells are mechanisms that may be further exploited.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 521.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
NRAS Q61K melanoma decreased response BGB-283 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in Mekinist (trametinib)-resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61K in culture resulted in a decreased response compared to the combination treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib), demonstrating reduced inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61R melanoma decreased response BGB-283 + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and SCH772984 in Mekinist (trametinib)-resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61R in culture resulted in a decreased response compared to the combination treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib), demonstrating reduced inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
BRAF V600E melanoma sensitive BGB-283 + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Mekinist (trametinib) and Lifirafenib (BGB-283) led to greater inhibition of growth in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF V600E in culture compared to either treatment alone (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61K melanoma no benefit BGB-283 + Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Ulixertinib (BVD-523) to Lifirafenib (BGB-283) treatment did not lead to inhibition of cell growth when compared to the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib) in MEK inhibitor resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61R melanoma sensitive BGB-283 + Trametinib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Mekinist (trametinib) and Lifirafenib (BGB-283) resulted in durable tumor regression compared to stabilized tumor growth when treated with either agent alone in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of melanoma harboring NRAS Q61R (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61L melanoma no benefit BGB-283 + Ulixertinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of Ulixertinib (BVD-523) to Lifirafenib (BGB-283) treatment did not lead to inhibition of cell growth when compared to the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib) in MEK inhibitor resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61L in culture (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
BRAF V600E colorectal cancer sensitive BGB-283 + Trametinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Mekinist (trametinib) and Lifirafenib (BGB-283) led to greater inhibition of growth in a colorectal cancer cell line harboring BRAF V600E in culture compared to either treatment alone (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61L melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + RAF709 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Mektovi (binimetinib) and RAF709 resulted in inhibition of cell growth in a MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma cell line harboring NRAS Q61L (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61K melanoma no benefit BGB-283 + MK-8353 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of MK-8353 to Lifirafenib (BGB-283) treatment did not lead to inhibition of cell growth when compared to the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib) in MEK inhibitor resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61K in culture (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61K melanoma decreased response BGB-283 + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and SCH772984 in Mekinist (trametinib)-resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61K in culture resulted in a decreased response compared to the combination treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib), demonstrating reduced inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS G13D melanoma sensitive BGB-283 + Trametinib Preclinical - Pdx Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Mekinist (trametinib) and Lifirafenib (BGB-283) resulted in durable tumor regression compared to stabilized tumor growth when treated with either agent alone in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of melanoma harboring NRAS G13D (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61L melanoma no benefit BGB-283 + MK-8353 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the addition of MK-8353 to Lifirafenib (BGB-283) treatment did not lead to inhibition of cell growth when compared to the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib) in MEK inhibitor resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61L in culture (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61R melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + RAF709 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Mektovi (binimetinib) and RAF709 resulted in inhibition of cell growth in a MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma cell line harboring NRAS Q61R (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61L melanoma decreased response BGB-283 + SCH772984 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and SCH772984 in Mekinist (trametinib)-resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61L in culture resulted in a decreased response compared to the combination treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib), demonstrating reduced inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61L melanoma decreased response BGB-283 + Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination treatment of Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Zelboraf (vemurafenib) in Mekinist (trametinib)-resistant melanoma cells harboring NRAS Q61L in culture resulted in a decreased response compared to the combination treatment with Lifirafenib (BGB-283) and Mekinist (trametinib), demonstrating reduced inhibition of cell growth (PMID: 33318037). 33318037
NRAS Q61K melanoma sensitive Binimetinib + RAF709 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, the combination of Mektovi (binimetinib) and RAF709 resulted in inhibition of cell growth in a MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma cell line harboring NRAS Q61K (PMID: 33318037). 33318037