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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (24675041)
Authors Friboulet L, Li N, Katayama R, Lee CC, Gainor JF, Crystal AS, Michellys PY, Awad MM, Yanagitani N, Kim S, Pferdekamper AC, Li J, Kasibhatla S, Sun F, Sun X, Hua S, McNamara P, Mahmood S, Lockerman EL, Fujita N, Nishio M, Harris JL, Shaw AT, Engelman JA
Title The ALK inhibitor ceritinib overcomes crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Journal Cancer discovery
Vol 4
Issue 6
Date 2014 Jun
URL
Abstract Text Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements invariably develop resistance to the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib. Herein, we report the first preclinical evaluation of the next-generation ALK TKI, ceritinib (LDK378), in the setting of crizotinib resistance. An interrogation of in vitro and in vivo models of acquired resistance to crizotinib, including cell lines established from biopsies of patients with crizotinib-resistant NSCLC, revealed that ceritinib potently overcomes crizotinib-resistant mutations. In particular, ceritinib effectively inhibits ALK harboring L1196M, G1269A, I1171T, and S1206Y mutations, and a cocrystal structure of ceritinib bound to ALK provides structural bases for this increased potency. However, we observed that ceritinib did not overcome two crizotinib-resistant ALK mutations, G1202R and F1174C, and one of these mutations was identified in 5 of 11 biopsies from patients with acquired resistance to ceritinib. Altogether, our results demonstrate that ceritinib can overcome crizotinib resistance, consistent with clinical data showing marked efficacy of ceritinib in patients with crizotinib-resistant disease.The second-generation ALK inhibitor ceritinib can overcome several crizotinib-resistant mutations and is potent against several in vitro and in vivo laboratory models of acquired resistance to crizotinib. These findings provide the molecular basis for the marked clinical activity of ceritinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC with crizotinib-resistant disease. Cancer Discov; 4(6); 662-73. ©2014 AACR. See related commentary by Ramalingam and Khuri, p. 634 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 621.

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Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
ALK F1174V missense gain of function - predicted ALK F1174V lies within the protein kinase domain of the Alk protein (UniProt.org). F1174V is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Alk protein as indicated by constitutive activation of the Alk protein in cell culture (PMID: 21242967) and has been demonstrated to occur as a secondary resistance mutation in the context of ALK fusions (PMID: 24675041). Y
ALK L1152P missense unknown ALK L1152P lies within the protein kinase domain of the Alk protein (UniProt.org). L1152P has been demonstrated to confer drug resistance in in the context of ALK rearrangement in culture (PMID: 24675041), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Alk protein function is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2020). Y
ALK S1206Y missense unknown ALK S1206Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Alk protein (UniProt.org). S1206Y has been demonstrated to occur as a secondary drug resistance mutation in the context of ALK rearrangements (PMID: 22277784, PMID: 24675041, PMID: 25727400), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Alk protein function is unknown (PubMed, Apr 2020). Y
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
EML4 - ALK ALK G1202R lung non-small cell carcinoma resistant Ceritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing EML4-ALK with ALK G1202R were insensitive to Zykadia (ceritinib) in culture (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK C1156Y lung non-small cell carcinoma conflicting Ceritinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Zykadia (ceritinib) demonstrated tumor growth inhibition in xenograft models of a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring EML4-ALK with ALK C1156Y when compared to Xalkori (crizotinib) (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK F1174C lung non-small cell carcinoma resistant Ceritinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient harboring EML4-ALK who developed resistance to Xalkori (crizotinib) treatment was subsequently treated with Zykadia (ceritinib), eventually progressed, and was found to have acquired ALK F1174C (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK G1202R lung non-small cell carcinoma resistant Ceritinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient harboring EML4-ALK who acquired the secondary drug resistance mutation, ALK S1206Y, when treated with Xalkori (crizotinib) was subsequently treated with Zykadia (ceritinib), developed drug resistance, and was then found to have lost the ALK S1206Y mutation, but gained ALK G1202R (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK C1156Y Advanced Solid Tumor conflicting Ceritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed human cells expressing ALK C1156Y in the context of EML4-ALK demonstrated minimal sensitivity to Zykadia (ceritinib) in culture (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK L1196M lung non-small cell carcinoma sensitive Ceritinib Preclinical - Cell line xenograft Actionable In a preclinical study, Zykadia (ceritinib) inhibited cell survival and PI3K/AKT, MEK/ERK, and mTOR signaling in two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines harboring the Xalkori (crizotinib) resistance mutation EML4-ALK ALK L1196M in culture and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft models of one of those cell lines (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK G1269A lung non-small cell carcinoma resistant Crizotinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, human lung cancer cell lines expressing ALK G1269A in the context of EML4-ALK demonstrated resistance to Xalkori (crizotinib) in culture (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK F1174V ALK G1202R lung non-small cell carcinoma sensitive Ceritinib Case Reports/Case Series Actionable In a clinical case study, a non-small cell lung carcinoma patient harboring EML4-ALK who was previously treated with Xalkori (crizotinib) and subsequently developed the resistance mutation, ALK G1269A, was treated with Zykadia (ceritinib), later progressed, and was found to have lost ALK G1269A, but gained ALK F1174V and ALK G1202R (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK G1269A lung non-small cell carcinoma sensitive Ceritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, human lung cancer cell lines harboring EML4-ALK with ALK G1269A demonstrated sensitivity to Zykadia (ceritinib) in culture (PMID: 24675041). 24675041
EML4 - ALK ALK S1206Y Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Ceritinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cells expressing EML4-ALK with ALK S1206Y demonstrated growth inhibition with Zykadia (ceritinib) treatment in culture (PMID: 24675041). 24675041