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|Ref Type||Journal Article|
|Authors||Wilhelm SM, Dumas J, Adnane L, Lynch M, Carter CA, Schütz G, Thierauch KH, Zopf D|
|Title||Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506): a new oral multikinase inhibitor of angiogenic, stromal and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases with potent preclinical antitumor activity.|
|Journal||International journal of cancer|
|Date||2011 Jul 01|
|Abstract Text||Angiogenesis, a critical driver of tumor development, is controlled by interconnected signaling pathways. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 play crucial roles in the biology of normal and tumor vasculature. Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506), a novel oral multikinase inhibitor, potently inhibits these endothelial cell kinases in biochemical and cellular kinase phosphorylation assays. Furthermore, regorafenib inhibits additional angiogenic kinases (VEGFR1/3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) and the mutant oncogenic kinases KIT, RET and B-RAF. The antiangiogenic effect of regorafenib was demonstrated in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Regorafenib administered once orally at 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the extravasation of Gadomer in the vasculature of rat GS9L glioblastoma tumor xenografts. In a daily (qd)×4 dosing study, the pharmacodynamic effects persisted for 48 hr after the last dosing and correlated with tumor growth inhibition (TGI). A significant reduction in tumor microvessel area was observed in a human colorectal xenograft after qd×5 dosing at 10 and 30 mg/kg. Regorafenib exhibited potent dose-dependent TGI in various preclinical human xenograft models in mice, with tumor shrinkages observed in breast MDA-MB-231 and renal 786-O carcinoma models. Pharmacodynamic analyses of the breast model revealed strong reduction in staining of proliferation marker Ki-67 and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinases 1/2. These data demonstrate that regorafenib is a well-tolerated, orally active multikinase inhibitor with a distinct target profile that may have therapeutic benefit in human malignancies.|
|Molecular Profile||Treatment Approach|
|Gene Name||Source||Synonyms||Protein Domains||Gene Description||Gene Role|
|Therapy Name||Drugs||Efficacy Evidence||Clinical Trials|
|Drug Name||Trade Name||Synonyms||Drug Classes||Drug Description|
|Gene||Variant||Impact||Protein Effect||Variant Description||Associated with drug Resistance|
|Molecular Profile||Indication/Tumor Type||Response Type||Therapy Name||Approval Status||Evidence Type||Efficacy Evidence||References|
|VHL del||renal cell carcinoma||predicted - sensitive||Regorafenib||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth in cell line xenograft models of renal cell carcinoma harboring VHL gene deletion (PMID: 21170960).||21170960|
|RET C634W||thyroid gland cancer||sensitive||Regorafenib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of thyroid cancer cells harboring RET C634W in culture (PMID: 21170960).||21170960|
|KIT K642E||gastrointestinal stromal tumor||sensitive||Regorafenib||Preclinical - Cell culture||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells harboring KIT K642E in culture (PMID: 21170960).||21170960|
|BRAF V600E||colorectal cancer||sensitive||Regorafenib||Preclinical - Cell line xenograft||Actionable||In a preclinical study, Stivarga (regorafenib) inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E in culture and suppressed angiogenesis and tumor growth in cell line xenograft models (PMID: 21170960).||21170960|