Reference Detail

Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (19861435)
Authors Girard N, Shen R, Guo T, Zakowski MF, Heguy A, Riely GJ, Huang J, Lau C, Lash AE, Ladanyi M, Viale A, Antonescu CR, Travis WD, Rusch VW, Kris MG, Pao W
Title Comprehensive genomic analysis reveals clinically relevant molecular distinctions between thymic carcinomas and thymomas.
Journal Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vol 15
Issue 22
Date 2009 Nov 15
URL
Abstract Text Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare intrathoracic malignancies that can be invasive and refractory to conventional treatment. Because these tumors both originate from the thymus, they are often grouped together clinically. However, whether the underlying biology of these tumors warrants such clustering is unclear, and the optimum treatment of either entity is unknown.All thymic tumors were profiled for mutations in genes encoding components of the EGFR and KIT signaling pathways, assessed for EGFR and KIT expression by immunohistochemistry, and analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Previously untreated tumors were subjected to global gene expression arrays.We analyzed 45 thymic tumors [thymoma, n = 38 (type A, n = 8; type B2, n = 22; type B3, n = 8); thymic carcinoma, n = 7]. One thymoma and one thymic carcinoma harbored KRAS mutations (G12A and G12V, respectively), and one thymoma had a G13V HRAS mutation. Three tumors displayed strong KIT staining. Two thymic carcinomas harbored somatic KIT mutations (V560del and H697Y). In cell viability assays, the V560del mutant was associated with similar sensitivities to imatinib and sunitinib, whereas the H697Y mutant displayed greater sensitivity to sunitinib. Genomic profiling revealed distinct differences between type A to B2 thymomas versus type B3 and thymic carcinomas. Moreover, array-based comparative genomic hybridization could readily distinguish squamous cell carcinomas of the thymus versus the lung, which can often present a diagnostic challenge.Comprehensive genomic analysis suggests that thymic carcinomas are molecularly distinct from thymomas. These data have clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic implications for the treatment of thymic malignancies.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
H697Y missense gain of function - predicted KIT H697Y lies within the protein kinase domain of the Kit protein (UniProt.org). H697Y is transforming in cultured cells in one study (PMID: 19861435) and therefore, is predicted to lead to a gain of Kit protein function.
V560del deletion gain of function - predicted KIT V560del results in the deletion of an amino acid in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the Kit protein at amino acid 560 (PMID: 12879016). V560del results in transformation of cultured cells in one study (PMID: 19861435) and therefore, is predicted to lead to a gain of Kit protein function.
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
KIT H697Y Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited growth of transformed cell lines overexpressing KIT H697Y in culture (PMID: 19861435). 19861435
KIT V560del Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Sunitinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Sutent (sunitinib) inhibited growth of transformed cell lines over expressing KIT V560del in culture (PMID: 19861435). 19861435
KIT V560del Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Imatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, Gleevec (imatinib) inhibited growth of transformed cell lines over expressing KIT V560del in culture (PMID: 19861435). 19861435
KIT H697Y Advanced Solid Tumor decreased response Imatinib Preclinical Actionable In a preclinical study, transformed cell lines overexpressing KIT H697Y demonstrated reduced sensitivity to Gleevec (imatinib mesylate)-induced growth inhibition in culture (PMID: 19861435). 19861435