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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (25351745)
Authors Arcila ME, Drilon A, Sylvester BE, Lovly CM, Borsu L, Reva B, Kris MG, Solit DB, Ladanyi M
Title MAP2K1 (MEK1) Mutations Define a Distinct Subset of Lung Adenocarcinoma Associated with Smoking.
Journal Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vol 21
Issue 8
Date 2015 Apr 15
URL
Abstract Text Genetic alterations affecting the MAPK/ERK pathway are common in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). Early steps of the signaling pathway are most often affected with EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations encompassing more than 70% of all alterations. Somatic mutations in MEK1, located downstream of BRAF, are rare and remain poorly defined as a distinct molecular subset.Tumors harboring MEK1 mutations were identified through targeted screening of a large LAD cohort concurrently interrogated for recurrent mutations in MEK1, EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2/HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, and AKT. Additional cases were identified through a search of publically available cancer genomic datasets. Mutations were correlated with patient characteristics and treatment outcomes. Overall survival was compared with stage-matched patients with KRAS- and EGFR-mutant LADs.We identified 36 MEK1-mutated cases among 6,024 LAD (0.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.85). The majority of patients were smokers (97%, n = 35/36). There was no association with age, sex, race, or stage. The most common mutations were K57N (64%, 23/36) followed by Q56P (19%, 7/36), all mutually exclusive with other driver mutations in the targeted panel. Transversions G:C>T:A were predominant (89%, 31/35), in keeping with smoking-associated DNA damage. Additional less common somatic mutations were identified in the kinase domain, all of which are predicted to converge into a single interaction area based on in silico 3D modeling.MEK1 mutations define a distinct subset of lung cancers (∼1%) with potential sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. Mutations are predominantly transversions, in keeping with a strong association with smoking.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
MAP2K1 NCBI CFC3|MAPKK1|MEK1|MEL|MKK1|PRKMK1 MAP2K1 (MEK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1, is a serine-threonine kinase, which activates that RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in cell proliferation and differentiation (PMID: 22753777). MAP2K1 (MEK1) activating mutations have been identified in a number of solid tumor types including, melanoma (PMID: 29753091), colorectal (PMID: 28819429), lung adenocarcinoma (PMID: 25351745, PMID: 32361034), histiocytic sarcoma (PMID: 29768143), and Map2k1 mutations are often associated with resistance to Mek and Raf inhibition (PMID: 29753091). Oncogene
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
MAP2K1 D67N missense gain of function MAP2K1 D67N does not lie within any known functional domains of the Map2k1 protein (UniProt.org). D67N confers a gain of function to the Map2k1 protein as demonstrated by increased Erk activation (PMID: 25049390, PMID: 29483135), increased Rsk phosphorylation, and anchorage-independent cell growth in culture (PMID: 25351745), and is associated with BRAF inhibitor resistance in the context of BRAF V600E in culture (PMID: 28986383). Y
MAP2K1 F53L missense gain of function MAP2K1 F53L lies within the negative regulatory region of the Map2k1 protein (PMID: 24241536). F53L results in activation of Map2k1 as indicated by increased Erk and Mek phosphorylation in cell culture (PMID: 25164765, PMID: 29483135), increased Rsk phosphorylation, and anchorage-independent cell growth in culture (PMID: 25351745), and also demonstrates resistance to some Mek and Braf inhibitors (PMID: 29753091). Y
MAP2K1 K57N missense gain of function MAP2K1 K57N lies within the negative regulatory region of the Map2k1 protein (PMID: 24241536). K57N confers a gain of function on the Map2k1 protein as demonstrated by increased autophosphorylation (PMID: 29753091), increased Erk phosphorylation (PMID: 18632602, PMID: 29753091), increased cell proliferation and cell viability as compared to wild-type Map2k1 in two different cell lines (PMID: 29533785, PMID: 18632602), transformation of cultured cells (PMID: 25351745), and also demonstrates resistance to some Mek and Braf inhibitors (PMID: 29753091). Y
MAP2K1 Q56P missense gain of function MAP2K1 Q56P does not lie within any known functional domains of the Map2k1 protein (UniProt.org). Q56P confers a gain of function to the Map2k1 protein as indicated by increased kinase activity and the ability to transform cultured cells (PMID: 7651428, PMID: 22327936, PMID: 25351745), and also demonstrates resistance to some Mek and Braf inhibitors (PMID: 29753091). Y
MAP2K1 S331R missense unknown MAP2K1 S331R lies within the protein kinase domain of the Map2k1 protein (UniProt.org). S331R has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 25351745, PMID: 26582713), but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Map2k1 protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2022).
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
MAP2K1 D67N Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Koselugo (selumetinib) inhibited colony formation of transformed cells expressing MAP2K1 D67N in culture (PMID: 25351745). 25351745
MAP2K1 Q56P Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Koselugo (selumetinib) inhibited colony formation of transformed cells expressing MAP2K1 Q56P in culture (PMID: 25351745). 25351745
MAP2K1 F53L Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Koselugo (selumetinib) inhibited colony formation of transformed cells expressing MAP2K1 F53L in culture (PMID: 25351745). 25351745
MAP2K1 K57N Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Selumetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Koselugo (selumetinib) inhibited colony formation of transformed cells expressing MAP2K1 K57N in culture (PMID: 25351745). 25351745