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Ref Type Journal Article
PMID (26996308)
Authors Foster SA, Whalen DM, Özen A, Wongchenko MJ, Yin J, Yen I, Schaefer G, Mayfield JD, Chmielecki J, Stephens PJ, Albacker LA, Yan Y, Song K, Hatzivassiliou G, Eigenbrot C, Yu C, Shaw AS, Manning G, Skelton NJ, Hymowitz SG, Malek S
Title Activation Mechanism of Oncogenic Deletion Mutations in BRAF, EGFR, and HER2.
Journal Cancer cell
Vol 29
Issue 4
Date 2016 Apr 11
URL
Abstract Text Activating mutations in protein kinases drive many cancers. While how recurring point mutations affect kinase activity has been described, the effect of in-frame deletions is not well understood. We show that oncogenic deletions within the β3-αC loop of HER2 and BRAF are analogous to the recurrent EGFR exon 19 deletions. We identify pancreatic carcinomas with BRAF deletions mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. Crystal structures of BRAF deletions reveal the truncated loop restrains αC in an active "in" conformation, imparting resistance to inhibitors like vemurafenib that bind the αC "out" conformation. Characterization of loop length explains the prevalence of five amino acid deletions in BRAF, EGFR, and HER2 and highlights the importance of this region for kinase activity and inhibitor efficacy.

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Molecular Profile Treatment Approach
Gene Name Source Synonyms Protein Domains Gene Description Gene Role
Therapy Name Drugs Efficacy Evidence Clinical Trials
Drug Name Trade Name Synonyms Drug Classes Drug Description
Gene Variant Impact Protein Effect Variant Description Associated with drug Resistance
BRAF L485_P490del deletion gain of function BRAF L485_P490del results in the deletion of six amino acids within the alphaC-helix region in the protein kinase domain of the Braf protein (PMID: 26732095). L485_P490del confers a gain of function to the Braf protein as demonstrated by increased kinase activity, phosphorylation of downstream Mek and Erk, and transformation ability in cell culture (PMID: 26732095, PMID: 26996308), and is associated with resistance to vemurafenib in cell culture (PMID: 26732095). Y
BRAF P490_Q494del deletion gain of function - predicted BRAF P490_Q494del results in the deletion of five amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the protein kinase domain in the Braf protein from amino acids 490 to 494 (PMID: 26732095). P490_Q494del results in activation of Mek in cell culture (PMID: 26996308), and similar Braf deletions are activating (PMID: 26996308, PMID: 26732095), and therefore P490_Q494del is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf function.
BRAF T488_P492del deletion gain of function - predicted BRAF T488_P492del results in the deletion of five amino acids near the alphaC-helix region of the protein kinase domain in the Braf protein from amino acids 488 to 492 (PMID: 26732095). T488_P492del results in activation of Mek in cell culture (PMID: 26996308), and similar Braf deletions are activating (PMID: 26996308, PMID: 26732095), and therefore T488_P492del is predicted to confer a gain of function to the Braf function.
Molecular Profile Indication/Tumor Type Response Type Therapy Name Approval Status Evidence Type Efficacy Evidence References
BRAF N486_P490del BRAF R509H BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Biochemical Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) failed to reduce Mek phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF N486_P490del, V600E, and R509H in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF R509H BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Biochemical Actionable In a preclinical study, GDC0879 reduced Mek phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and R509H in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del melanoma resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) failed to reduce phosphorylation of Mek and Erk and did not inhibit viability of a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del BRAF R509H Advanced Solid Tumor resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Biochemical Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) failed to reduce Mek phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF N486_P490del and R509H in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del melanoma sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated sensitivity to AZ628, resulting in decreased cell viability and inhibition of Mek and Erk phosphorylation in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del melanoma sensitive PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated sensitivity to PD-0325901, resulting in decreased cell viability in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del melanoma sensitive Cobimetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated sensitivity to Cotellic (cobimetinib), resulting in decreased cell viability in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del ovarian cancer sensitive Cobimetinib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, an ovarian cancer cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated sensitivity to Cotellic (cobimetinib), resulting in decreased cell viability in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del ovarian cancer sensitive PD-0325901 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, an ovarian cancer cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated sensitivity to PD-0325901, resulting in decreased cell viability in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del BRAF R509H BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Biochemical Actionable In a preclinical study, GDC0879 reduced Mek phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF N486_P490del, V600E, and R509H in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF R509H BRAF V600E Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive Vemurafenib Preclinical - Biochemical Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) reduced Mek phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF V600E and R509H in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del ovarian cancer predicted - sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, an ovarian cancer cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated partial sensitivity to GDC0879 in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del ovarian cancer sensitive AZ628 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, an ovarian cancer cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated sensitivity to AZ628, resulting in decreased cell viability and inhibition of Mek and Erk phosphorylation in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del BRAF R509H Advanced Solid Tumor sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Biochemical Actionable In a preclinical study, GDC0879 reduced Mek phosphorylation in transformed cells expressing BRAF N486_P490del and R509H in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del ovarian cancer resistant Vemurafenib Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, Zelboraf (vemurafenib) failed to reduce phosphorylation of Mek and Erk and did not inhibit viability of an ovarian cancer cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308
BRAF N486_P490del melanoma predicted - sensitive GDC0879 Preclinical - Cell culture Actionable In a preclinical study, a melanoma cell line harboring BRAF N486_P490del demonstrated partial sensitivity to GDC0879 in culture (PMID: 26996308). 26996308