Chemotherapy - Platinum
||Paraplatin (carboplatin) is a second-generation platinum compound and is activated intracellularly to form reactive platinum complexes that cross link DNA with DNA and with proteins. This induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth (NCI Drug Dictionary).
||Vepesid (etoposide) binds to and inhibits DNA topoisomerase II, resulting in accumulated DNA damage, inhibition of replication, and cell death (NCI Drug Dictionary).
Chemotherapy - Alkylating
||Cyfos (ifosfamide) is an alkylating agent, which cross-links DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication (NCI Drug Dictionary).
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor
||Opdivo (nivolumab) is an antibody that targets PD-1 (PDCD1), which results in increased T-cell activation and enhanced anti-tumor immune response (PMID: 28891423). Opdivo (nivolumab) is FDA approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, squamous NSCLC, metastatic small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and for dMMR or MSI-H colorectal cancer as a single agent or in combination with Yervoy (ipilimumab) (FDA.gov).